Model Minority Stereotype


    1. Abad, M. N. (2020). ‘I’m picking a side’ thick solidarity, antiblackness and the grammar of the model minority. Race Ethnicity and Education. [Download]
    2. Agbayani, A., & Takeuchi, D. T. (1989). Limited Access to Public Higher Education for Native Hawaiian and Filipino Students in Hawaii. In G. Yun (Ed.), A Look Beyond the Model Minority Image: Critical Issues in Asian America (pp. 126-134). New York: Minority Rights Group Inc.[Download]
    3. Administrator. (2011, December 13). 20 Amazing Stats About Asian-American Achievement.[Download]
    4. Allred, N. C. (2007). Asian Americans and Affirmative Action: From Yellow Peril to Model Minority and Back Again. Asian American Law Journal, 14(1), 57-84. [Download]
    5. Adler, S. M. (2006). Problematizing Asian American Children as “Model” Students. In M. N.[Download]
    6. Ang, S. W. (2012). The Politics of Victimization and the Model Minority. CR: The New Centennial Review, 11(3), 119-140.[Download]
    7.  Angeli, F. (2021). I am not a virus! From model minority to public enemy, the racialisation of the Chinese community in Italy through food. [Download]
    8. Appiah, O., & Liu, Y. (2009). Reaching the Model Minority: Ethnic Differences in Responding to Culturally Embedded Targeted- and Non-Targeted Advertisements. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 31(1), 27-41.[Download]
    9. Asher, N. (2001). Checking the box: The label “model minority.” In G. M. Hudak & P. Kihn (Eds.), Labeling: Pedagogy and Politics (pp. 75-92). New York: Routledge Falmer.[Download]
    10. Asian American Center for Advancing Justice. (2011). A Community of Contrasts: Asian Americans in the United States 2011. New York: Asian Pacific American Legal Center.[Download]
    11. Assalone, A. E., & Fann, A. (2016). Understanding the influence of model minority stereotypes on Asian American community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 1–14. [Download]
    12. Atkin, L., Yoo, H. C., Jager, J., & Yeh, C. J. (2018). Internalization of the model minority myth, school racial composition, and psychological distress among Asian American adolescents. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 9(2), 108–116.[Download]
    13. Abraham, M. (2006). Model Minority and Marital Violence: South Asian Immigrants in the United States. In R. Mahalingam (Ed.), Cultural Psychology of Immigrants (pp. 197-216). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [Download]
    14. Alumkal, A. W. (2002). The Scandal of the “Model Minority” Mind? The Bible and Second-Generation Asian American Evangelicals. Semeia, 90(91), 237-250.[Download]
    15. Alvarez, A. N., Juang, L., & Liang, C. T. (2006). Asian Americans and Racism: When Bad Things Happen to “Model Minorities.” Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(3), 477–492.[Download]
    16. Aoki, A. L. (2000). Model Minority. In J. D. Schultz, K. L. Haynie, A. M. McCulloch, & A. L. Aoki (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans (pp. 309-310). Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.[Download]
    17. Allis, S. (1991, March 25). Kicking the Nerd Syndrome. Time, 137(12), 64-65. [Download]
    18. Andrews, J. L. (2009). From Internment to ‘Model Minority’: The Reintegration of Japanese Americans in United States Society after World War Two. [Thesis].[Download]
    19. Arana, A. M., & Smith, R. A. (2015). The model minority myth and its implications on Asian Americans. [Download]
    20. Austin, G. (2012). More than a “model minority.” Profiles In Diversity Journal, 14(3), 56-61. [Download]
    21. Baba, M. (2018, Spring). Life in the shadow of the model minority myth. University Undergraduate Research Journal, 10(1), 1–8.[Download]
    22. Baker, B. D., Keller-Wolff, C., & Wolf-Wendel, L. (2000). Two steps forward, one step back: Race/ethnicity and student achievement in education policy research. Educational Policy, 14(4), 511–529.[Download]
    23. Balan, S., & Mahalingam, R. (2015). “Good Asian moms”: Engendering the model minority myth among Indian immigrant working women. In O. M. Espín & A. L. Dottolo (Eds.), Gendered journeys: Women, migration and feminist psychology (pp. 104–122). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.[Download]
    24. Ball, D. (2019). America’s “Whiz Kids”? Ambivalence and the model minority stereotype. Sociological Spectrum, 1–15. [Download]
    25. Bang, Y., & Kwon, K. Y. (2008). Korean Mothers’ Perspectives Regarding Their Children’s Education in the U.S.: Do Mother Want Their Children to be a Model Minority? International Journal of Early Childhood Education, 14(2), 98–119. [Download]
    26. Banerjee, K. (2003, April). A Model Minority? India Currents, 17(1), 24, 26. [Download]
    27. Bansal, P. (2020). Both, and: The dichotomous relationship between the model minority myth and psychological distress for South Asians in the United States. Unpublished master’s thesis. University of Maryland, College Park. [Download]
    28. Beckett, G. H. (2007). What Contributes to Asian Model Minority Academic Success? An Ecological Perspective. New Waves: Educational Research and Development, 11(3), 7-10.[Download]
    29. Bell, M. P., Harrison, D. A., & McLaughlin, M. E. (1997). Asian American Attitudes Toward Affirmative Action in Employment: Implications for the Model Minority Myth. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 33(3), 356-377.[Download]
    30. Bascara, V. (2006). Model-Minority Imperialism. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. [Download]
    31. Brydolf, C. (2009). Getting Real About the “Model Minority”: Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders Fight Their Stereotype. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 74(5), 37–44.[Download]
    32. Bucholtz, M. (2004). Styles and Stereotypes: The Linguistic Negotiation of Identity Among Laotian American Youth. Pragmatics, 14(2/3), 127–147.[Download]
    33. Bodywise (n.d.). Asian and Pacific Islander Girls: Eating Disorders Information Sheet.[Download]
    34. Bhatt, A. J. (2003). Asian Indians and the Model Minority Narrative: A Neocolonial System. In E. M. Kramer (Ed.), The Emerging Monoculture: Assimilation and the “Model Minority” (pp. 203-220). Westport, CT: Praeger.[Download]
    35. Bhattacharyya, S. (2001). From ‘Yellow Peril’ to ‘Model Minority’: The Transition of Asian Americans. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Little Rock, AR, November 14-16, 2001. ERIC ED462462.[Download]
    36. Bradbury, A. (2013). From model minorities to disposable models: the de-legitimisation of educational success through discourses of authenticity. Discourse, 34(4) 548–561.[Download]
    37. Busto, R. V. (1996). The Gospel According to the Model Minority?: Hazarding an Interpretation of Asian American Evangelical College Students. Amerasia Journal, 22(1), 133–147. [Download]
    38. Bascara, V. (2008). Model Minority. In R. T. Schaefer (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society (pp. 910-912). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. [Download]
    39. Bell, D. A. (1985, July 15 & 22). America’s Greatest Success Story: The Triumph of Asian-Americans. The New Republic, 193, 24, 26, 28-31.[Download]
    40. Brand, D. (1987, August 31). The New Whiz Kids. Time, 130(9), 3, 42-46, 49, 51.[Download]
    41. Butterfield, F. (1986, August 3). Why Asians Are Going to The Head of The Class. The New York Times, EDUC18.[Download]
    42. Balan, S. (2009). Being Asians, Good “Moms,” and Great Workers: Investigating the Psychological Contours of Asian Indian Immigrant Women’s “Model Minority” Experience. [Dissertation].[Download]
    43. Bowman, E. (2008). Asian Students’ Perceptions of the Model Minority Label. [Thesis].[Download]
    44. Coalition for Asian American Children and Families (CACF). (2011). “We’re Not Even Allowed to Ask for Help”: Debunking the Myth of the Model Minority. New York: Pumphouse Projects.[Download]
    45. Caplan, N., Choy, M. H., & Whitmore, J. K. (1992). Indochinese refugee families and academic achievement. Scientific American, 266(2), 36-42.[Download]
    46. Chae, H. S. (2004). Talking Back to the Asian Model Minority Discourse: Korean-Origin Youth Experiences in High School. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 25(1), 59-73.[Download]
    47. Chae, Y. (2008). Cultural Economies of Model Minority Creation. In Y. Chae, Politicizing Asian American Literature: Towards a Critical Multiculturalism (pp. 19-30). New York: Routledge.[Download]
    48. Chang, B., & Au, W. (2007). You’re Asian, How Could You Fail Math? Unmasking the Myth of the Model Minority. Rethinking Schools, 22(2), 15–19.[Download]
    49. Chang, J. C. (2005). A Gesture Life: Reviewing the Model Minority Complex in a Global Context. Journal of American Studies, 37(1), 131–152. [Download]
    50. Chang, S. (2016). Is gay the new Asian?: Marriage equality and the dawn of a new model minority. Asian American Law Journal, 23(1), 5–38. [Download]
    51. Chen, E. (2006). Deconstructing the Model Minority Image: Asian Pacific Americans, Race, Class, Gender, and Work. In E. Chen & G. Omatsu (Eds.), Teaching About Asian Pacific Americans: Effective Activities, Strategies, and Assignments for Classrooms and Communities (pp. 41–56). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. [Download]
    52. Chen, C., & Stevenson, H. W. (1995). Motivation and mathematics achievement: A comparative study of Asian-American, Caucasian-American, and East Asian high school students.Child Development, 66(4),1215-1234.[Download]
    53. Chen, S. (2015). Madeline Y. Hsu. The Good Immigrants: How the Yellow Peril Became the Model Minority. The American Historical Review, 120(5), 1907–1908. [Download]
    54. Chinn, P. (2002). Asian and Pacific Islander Women Scientists and Engineers: A Narrative Exploration of Model Minority, Gender, and Racial Stereotypes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(4), 302-323.[Download]
    55. Cho, E. D. (2021). From the yellow peril to the model minority and back again: Unraveling the orientalist representations of Asian Americans in the age of COVID-19. Journal of Pastoral Theology. [Download]
    56. Cho, E. Y. (2017). A double bind—“model minority” and “illegal alien.” Asian American Law Journal, 24, 123–130.[Download]
    57. Cho, S., & Blair, K. C. (2015). The model minority and creating system-wide supports for underserved Asian-American students. In C. Hudley (Ed.), Adolescent identity and schooling: Diverse perspectives (pp. 67–80). New York: Routledge.[Download]
    58. Choi, D. H. (1992, Spring). The Other Side of the Model Minority Myth. Yisei Magazine, 5(2), 20-23,25,26. [Download]
    59. Choi, S. (2011). The Centennial of Korean Immigration to the U.S.: Evaluation and Prospects. 사회과학연구, 22(1), 151–168. [Download]
    60. Choi, Y., & Lahey, B. B. (2006). Testing the Model Minority Stereotype: Youth Behaviors Across Racial and Ethnic Groups. Social Service Review, 80(3), 419-452.[Download]
    61. Chu, L. T. (1991). Who Are the Model Minorities among the Junior College Asian-American Subgroups?[Download]
    62. Conchas, G. Q., & Pérez, C. C. (2003). Surfing the “Model Minority” Wave of Success: How the School Context Shapes Distinct Experiences Among Vietnamese Youth. New Directions for Youth Development: Understanding the Social Worlds of Immigrant Youth, 100, 41-56.[Download]
    63. Crystal, D. (1989). Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 70(7), 405-413.[Download]
    64. Chang, I. (2003). The Bamboo Curtain Rises: Mainlanders and Model Minorities. In I. Chang, The Chinese in America: A Narrative History (pp. 312-333). New York: Viking.[Download]
    65. Chang, M. J. (2011). Battle Hymn of the Model Minority Myth. Amerasia Journal, 37(2), 137-143.[Download]
    66. Chao, M. M., Chiu, C., & Lee, J. S. (2010). Asians as the Model Minority: Implications for US Government’s Policies. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 13(1), 44-52.[Download]
    67. Chiu, P. K. (1988, May 16). The Myth of the Model Minority. U.S. News & World Report, 104, 7. [Download]
    68. Chou, C. (2008). Critique on the Notion of Model Minority: An Alternative Racism to Asian American? Asian Ethnicity, 9(3), 219-229.[Download]
    69. Chou, R. S. (2008). The White Myth of the Model Minority: Disguising Racial Oppression.Paper presented at the American Sociological Association 103 Annual Meeting, August1-4 2008.[Download]
    70. Chou, R. S., & Feagin, J. R. (2010). The Myth of the Model Minority: Asian Americans Facing Racism. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.[Download]
    71. Chang, C. (1998). Streets of Gold: The Myth of the Model Minority. In G. Colombo, R. Cullen, & B. Lisle (Eds.), Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing (4th ed.) (pp. 366-375). Boston, MA: Bedford Books.[Download]
    72. Cho, M. (1994). Overcoming our Legacy as Cheap Labor, Scabs, and Model Minorities. In K. Aguilar-San Juan (Ed.), The State of Asian America: Activism and Resistance in the 1990s (pp. 253-273). Boston, MA: South End Press.[Download]
    73. Chun, K. (1980, Winter/Spring). The Myth of Asian American Success and Its Educational Ramifications. IRCD Bulletin, 15(1&2), 1-12.[Download]
    74. Chen, M. S. (2005). Cancer Health Disparities among Asian Americans: What We Know and What We Need to Do. Cancer, 104(12), 2895-2902.[Download]
    75. Chen, M. S., & Hawks, B. L. (1995). A Debunking of the Myth of Healthy Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. American Journal of Health Promotion, 9(4), 261-268.[Download]
    76. Cho, S. K. (1997). Converging Stereotypes in Racialized Sexual Harassment: Where the Model Minority Meets Suzie Wong. Journal of Gender, Race & Justice, 1(1), 178-211.[Download]
    77. Chun, K., & Zalokar, N. (1992). Civil Rights Issues Facing Asian Americans in the 1990s.Washington, DC: Commission on Civil Rights.[Download]
    78. Cohen, E. (2007, May 16). Push to Achieve Tied to Suicide in Asian-American Women. CNN.[Download]
    79. Cheng, L., & Yang, P. Q. (1996). Asians: The “Model Minority” Deconstructed. In R. Waldinger & M. Bozorgmehr (Eds.), Ethnic Los Angeles (pp. 305–344). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.[Download]
    80. Cheng, A. W., Iwamoto, D. K., & McMullen, D. (2016, May). Model minority stereotype and the diagnosis of alcohol use disorders: Implications for practitioners working with Asian Americans. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 1-18. [Download]
    81. Cheng, A. W., Chang, J., & O’Brien, J., Budgazad, M. S., & Tsai, J. (2016, May 31). Model minority stereotype: Influence on perceived mental health needs of Asian Americans. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 1–10. [Download]
    82. Cui, D. (2016). Heterogeneity and differentiation behind model minority discourse: Struggles of Chinese students in Canadian schools. In W. Ma & G. Li (Eds.), Chinese-heritage students in North American schools: Understanding hearts and minds behind test scores. New York: Routledge
    83. Chen, S. S., & Lau, S. W. (2020). Good Chinese girls and the model minority: Race, education, and community in Girl in Translation and Front Desk. Child Literature in Education. 1–16. [Download]
    84. Chu, N. V. (1997). Re-Examining the Model Minority Myth: A Look at Southeast Asian Youth. The Berkeley McNair Journal, 5, 167-176.[Download]
    85. Cunanan, V., Guerrero, A., & Minamoto, L. (2006). Filipinos and the Myth of Model Minority in Hawai’i: A Pilot Study. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 15(1/2). 167-192.[Download]
    86. Cheryan, S., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2011). Model Minority. In S. M. Caliendo & C. D.McIlwain (Eds.), Routledge Companion to Race & Ethnicity (pp. 173-176). New York: Routledge.[Download]
    87. Chen, C. (2012, December 19). Asians: Too Smart for Their Own Good? The New York Times [Op-Ed].[Download]
    88. Chau, C. (1996). A Model Minority: A Study of Selected Chinese Canadians and Their Strategies for Coping With Marginal Status in Canadian Education. [Thesis].[Download]
    89. Chao, M. M., Chiu, C., Chan, W., Mendoza-Denton, R., & Kwok, C. (2013). The model minority as a shared reality and its implication for interracial perceptions. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 4(2), 84–92. [Download]
    90. Chen, A. (1998). The Model Minority Stereotype in the Media: A Personal Perspective[Dissertation].[Download]
    91. Chen, C. H. (2000). From Pariah to Paragon: Mormon and Asian American Model Minority Discourse in News and Popular Magazines. [Dissertation].[Download]
    92. Chen, J. L. (1995). The Internalization of the Model Minority Stereotype as a Predictor of Depression Among Chinese Americans. [Dissertation].[Download]
    93. Cheung, E. M-W. (2003). The Model Minority Myth: Voices of Chinese-American Mathematics Students and Their Approach to Mathematics. [Thesis].[Download]
    94. Chi, J. S. (2011). Teaching Korea: Modernization, Model Minorities, and American Internationalism in the Cold War Era. [Dissertation].[Download]
    95. Ching, T. H. W. (2021). Culturally attuned behavior therapy for anxiety and depression in Asian Americans: Addressing racial microaggressions and deconstructing the model minority myth. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. [Download]
    96. Cho, H. (2011). The Relationship of Model Minority Stereotype, Asian Cultural Values, and Acculturation to Goal Orientation, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Academic Achievement in Asian American College Students. [Dissertation].[Download]
    97. Chou, R. S. (2007). Malady of the “Model Minority”: White Racism’s Assault on the Asian American Psyche. [Thesis].[Download]
    98. Chao, M. M., Chiu, C., Chan, W., Mendoza-Denton, R., & Kwok, C. (2013). The model minority as a shared reality and its implication for interracial perceptions. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 4(2), 84-92. doi: 10.1037/a0028769[Download]
    99. Cobb, K. (1991, November 27). Asian Americans Reveal Dark Side of “Model Minority” Stereotype. The Houston Chronicle. A27.[Download]
    100. Chicago Tribune. (1998, January 3). What ‘Model Minority’ Doesn’t Tell. p. 18.[Download]
    101. Chen, C. (2012, December 19). Asians: Too Smart for Their Own Good? The New York Times [Op-Ed]. [Download]
    102. Cloud Atlas (2012). [Download]
    103. Chen, C. H., & Yorgason, E. (1997, August). Use of Asian American History in the News Media: The Discourse of “Model Minority.” Paper presented at the Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication—Minorities and Communication. Chicago, Illinois.[Download]
    104. Chen, C. H., & Yorgason, E. (1999). “Those Amazing Mormons”: The Media’s Construction of Latter-Day Saints as a Model Minority. Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 32(2), 107-128.[Download]
    105. Chen, C. H. (2004). “Outwhiting the Whites”: An Examination of the Persistence of Asian American Model Minority Discourse. In R. A. Lind (Ed.), Race, Gender, Media:Considering Diversity Across Audiences, Content, and Producers (pp. 146-153). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.[Download]
    106. Chen, C. H. (2004). Mormon and Asian American Model Minority Discourses in News and Popular Magazines. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.[Download]
    107. Chao, M. M, Chiu, C., Chan, W., Mendoza-Denton, R., & Kwok, C. (2012). The Model Minority as a Shared Reality and Its Implication for Interracial Perceptions. Asian American Journal of Psychology. 1-12. doi: 10.1037/a0028769.[Download]
    108. Chang, R. S., & Villazor, R. C. (2007). Testing the ‘Model Minority Myth’: A Case of Weak Empiricism. Northwestern University Law Review Colloquy, 101, 101–107.[Download]
    109. Chang, C. (1998). Streets of Gold: The Myth of the Model Minority. In G. Colombo, R. Cullen, & B. Lisle (Eds.), Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing (4th ed.) (pp. 366-375). Boston, MA: Bedford Books.[Download]
    110. Choi, H. (2002). Asian-Americans as a Model Minority: Myth of Reality. Review of International and Area Studies, 11(4), 127–143.[Download]
    111. Coolican, J. P. (2003, April 24). Myth of Model Minority Targeted. The Seattle Times, B8. [Download]
    112. Cui, D. (2019). Model minority stereotype and racialized habitus: Chinese Canadian youth struggling with racial discrimination at school. Journal of Childhood Studies, 44(3), 70–84. [Download]
    113. Dang, C-S. T. (2013). Endorsing the Model Minority Myth: A Fine Line Between Social Support, Parental Perfectionism and Depression Among Asian College Students. Unpublished thesis. The Ohio State University. [Download]
    114. DasGupta, M. (2002). Vijay Prashad, South American Karma, and the Model Minority Myth Dismantled: A Review Essay. CLR James Journal, 9(1), 231–238. [Download]
    115. DeGuzman, G. R. (1998). The Impact of the Model Minority Myth in Higher Education. Journal of Student Affairs, 7(1), 85–91. [Download]
    116. Divoky, D. (1988, November). The Model Minority Goes to School. Phi Delta Kappan, 70(3), 219-222.[Download]
    117. D’Angelo, R., & Douglas, H. (2009). Are Asian Americans a Model Minority? In R. D’Angelo & H. Douglas (Eds.), Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Race and Ethnicity (7th ed.) (pp. 311–336). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.[Download]
    118. Danico, M. Y., & Ng, F. (2004). Asian Americans: A Model Minority? In M. Y. Danico and F. Ng, Asian American Issues (pp. 23-46). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.[Download]
    119. Dhingra, P. (2007). Model Americans and Minorities: Racial Identities and Responses to Racism. In P. Dhingra, Managing Multicultural Lives: Asian American Professionals and the Challenge of Multiple Identities (pp. 84-123), Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.[Download]
    120. Dhingra, P. H. (2015). Collective action, mobility, and shared struggles: how the so-called model minority can come to deny the myth. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 23(2), 210–227. [Download]
    121. DiAlto, S. J. (2005). From “Problem Minority” to “Model Minority”: The Changing Social Construction of Japanese Americans. In A. L. Schneider & H. M. Ingram (Eds.), Deserving and Entitled: Social Constructions and Public Policy (pp. 81-103). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.[Download]
    122. Diouf-Kamara, S. (1997, Summer). The Senegalese in New York: A Model Minority? Black Renaissance, 1(2), 92-115.[Download]
    123. Delucchi, M., & Do, H. D. (1996). The Model Minority Myth and Perceptions of Asian-Americans as Victims of Racial Harassment. College Student Journal, 30(3), 411-414.[Download]
    124. Dailsay, F. S. (2006). The Implications of the Asian American “Model Minority” Stereotype on Perceptions of African Americans. [Thesis].[Download]
    125. Davé, S. (2013). Animating Gandhi: Historical Figures, Asian American Masculinity, and Model-Minority Accents in Clone High. In S. S. Davie (Ed.), Indian Accents: Brown Voice and Racial Performance in American Television and Film (pp. 60–84). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. [Download]
    126. Dennis, E. (2018). Exploring the model minority: Deconstructing Whiteness through the Asian American example. In G. J. Sefa Dei & S. Hilowle (Eds.), Cartographies of race and social difference (pp. 33–48). New York: Springer.[Download]
    127. Diamond, R. H. (2008). One Size Does Not Fit All: The Effect of the Model Minority Stereotype on the Academic Journeys of Ten Chinese American and Korean American Women. [Dissertation].[Download]
    128. Dillin, J. (1985, October 10). Asian-Americans: Soaring Minority. The Christian Science Monitor.[Download]
    129. Daga, S., & Raval, V. V. (2018). Ethnic–racial socialization, model minority experience, and psychological functioning among south Asian American emerging adults: A preliminary mixed-methods study. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 9(1), 17–31.[Download]
    130. Daseler, R. (2000). Asian Americans Battle “Model Minority” Stereotype. In A. Minas (Ed.), Gender Basics: Feminist Perspectives on Women and Men (2nd ed.) (pp. 45-49). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.[Download]
    131. Do, K. N. (2020, October). Positive portrayal versus positive stereotype: The effect of media exposure to the model minority stereotype on Asian Americans’ self-concept and emotions. Unpublished dissertation. Santa Barbara, CA: University of California, Santa Barbara. [Download]
    132. Dong, L. (2015). The model minority between medical school and Nintendo. In M. Chiu (Ed.), Drawing new color lines: Transnational Asian American graphic narratives (pp. 69-86). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. [Download]
    133. Dong, L. (2015). The model minority between medical school and Nintendo. In M. Chiu (Ed.), Drawing new color lines: Transnational Asian American graphic narratives (pp. 69-86). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
    134. D, T. (2011). The Model Minority: Asian-American Youth and the Harmful Perpetuation of a Cultural Myth. Student Pulse, 3(9), 1-3.[Download]
    135. Dong, X., & Simon, M. (2019). Deconstructing the model-minority myth of U.S. Asians: Determinants and consequences of elder mistreatment. Innovation in Aging, 3(S1), 760–761. [Download]
    136. Ecklund, E. (2005). ‘Us’ and ‘Them’: The Role of Religion in Mediating and Challenging the ‘Model Minority’ and Other Civic Boundaries. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(1), 132-150.[Download]
    137. Ecklund, E. H., & Park, J. Z. (2005). Asian American Community Participation and Religion: Civic “Model Minorities?” Journal of Asian American Studies, 8(1), 1-21.[Download]
    138. Endo, R. (1974). Japanese Americans: The “Model Minority” In Perspective. In R. Gomez & C. Cottingham (Eds.), The Social Reality of Ethnic America (pp 189-213). Lexington, MA: DC Heath and Company.[Download]
    139. Endo, G. T., & Della-Piana, C. K. (1981). Japanese Americans, Pluralism, and the Model Minority Myth. Theory Into Practice, 20(1), 45-51.[Download]
    140. Eguchia, S., & Starosta, W. (2012). Negotiating the Model Minority Image: Performative Aspects of College-Educated Asian American Professional Men. Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, 13(1), 88-97. [Download]
    141. Education Trust. (2010). Overlooked and Underserved: Debunking the Asian “Model Minority” Myth in California Schools [Policy Brief]. Oakland, CA: Education Trust West. [Download]
    142. Edles, L. D. (2004). Rethinking ‘Race’, ‘Ethnicity’ and ‘Culture’: Is Hawai‘i the ‘Model Minority’ State. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 27(1), 37-68.[Download]
    143. Edles, L. D. (2003). “Race,” “Ethnicity,” and Culture” in Hawai‘i: The Myth of the “Model Minority” State. In L. I. Winters & H. L. DeBose (Eds.), New Faces in a Changing America: Multiracial Identity in the 21st Century (pp. 222-246). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.[Download]
    144. Empleo, A. C. (2006). Disassembling the Model Minority: Asian Pacific Islander Identities and Their Schooling Experiences. Multicultural Perspectives, 8(3), 46-50. [Download]
    145. Eng, P., & Layne, P. (2002). Asian American Engineers: A Model Minority? SWE, 2, 96-100.[Download]
    146. Eusebio, E. C. (2019). Addressing the model minority myth from a cognitive perspective. Psychology and Cognitive Sciences, 5(2), e01–e03. [Download]
    147. Fan, J. X., & Zan, H. (2017). The “model minority” myth: Asian American middle class before, during, and after the great recession. The Singapore Economic Review, 64(1), 1–17.[Download]
    148. Fong, T. P. (2008). (3rd ed.). The Contemporary Asian American Experience: Beyond the Model Minority. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.[Download]
    149. Fong, C. (1995). The Model Minority. In F. Ng (Ed.), Asian American Encyclopedia (pp. 1072-1086). New York: Marshall Cavendish.[Download]
    150. Freedman, J. (2005). Transgressions of a Model Minority. Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies, 23(4), 69-97.[Download]
    151. Farole, S. (2011). Social Justice Implications of the Model Minority. McNair Scholars Journal, 10, 69-78.[Download]
    152. Fong, T. (1987, June/July). Undocumented Asians shadowed by spotlight on ‘model minority.’ Mediafile, 8(3) 1, 9 .[Download]
    153. Fujino, D. C. (2015). Black militants and Asian American model minorities: Contesting oppositional representations; or, on Afro-Asian solidarities. Kalfou, 2(1), 97–116.
    154. Gadd, C. A. (2012). The Advocate and The Making of a Gay Model Minority, 1967–2007. Unpublished dissertation. Lehigh University. [Download]
    155. Galindo, C., & Pong, S. (2011). Tenth Grade Math Achievement of Asian Students: Are Asian Students Still the “Model Minority”?—A Comparison of Two Educational Cohorts. In X. L. Rong & R. Endo (Eds.), Asian American Education—Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages (pp. 1-29). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.[Download]
    156. Ganahl, D. J., Ge, L., & Kim, K. (2003). Stereotyping the “Model Minority”: A Longitudinal Analysis of U.S. Primetime Network Commercials, Comparing Asian Female and Male Characters to Themselves and Others. [Conference Proceeding].[Download]
    157. Gotanda, N. (1995). Re-Producing the Model Minority Stereotype: Judge Joyce Karlin’s Sentencing Colloquy in People v. Soon Ja Du. In W. L. Ng, S. Chin, J. S. Moy, & G. Y Okihiro (Eds.), ReViewing Asian America: Locating Diversity (pp. 87-106). Pullman, WA: Washington State University.[Download]
    158. Gran Torino (2008).[Download]
    159. Goto, S. G., & Abe-Kim, J. (1998). Asian Americans and the Model Minority Myth. In T. M. Singelis (Ed.), Teaching About Culture, Ethnicity, & Diversity: Exercises and Planned Activities (pp. 151-157). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.[Download]
    160. Gupta, A., Szymanski, D., & Leong, F. (2011). The “Model Minority Myth”: Internalized Racialism of Positive Stereotypes as Correlates of Psychological Distress, and Attitudes Toward Help-Seeking. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 22(2), 101–114. [Download]
    161. Gu, L. (1999). Model Minority?: An Analysis of Asian Women in the U.S. Labor Force[Thesis]. [Download]
    162. Gupta, A. (2010). Acculturation and Asian Values as Moderators of the Relationship Between Endorsement of Positive Stereotypes and Asian’s Subjective Overachievement, Psychological Distress, Well-Being, and Attitudes Toward Help Seeking: An Analysis of the “Model Minority Myth.” [Dissertation]. [Download]
    163. Gutfreund, Z. (2019). Language, citizenship, and the “model minority myth”: The political conservatism of Nisei language scholars in California. Southern California Quarterly, 101(2), 205–241. [Download]
    164. Graubard, S. G. (1988, January 29). Why Do Asian Pupils Win Those Prizes? The New York Times, A35.Givens, R. (1984, April 15). The Drive to Excel: Strong Families and Hard Work Propel Asian-Americans to the Top of the Class. Newsweek On Campus. 4-13.[Download]
    165. Graham, J. (2009, April 2). Asian American Suicides Spark Concern. Chicago Tribune.[Download]
    166. Guillermo, E. (2011). Advancing the Race Conversation: Chinese Man vs. Model Minority.Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 28(10), 20.[Download]
    167. Green, D. O., & Kim, E. (2005). Experiences of Korean Female Doctoral Students in Academe: Raising Voice Against Gender and Racial Stereotypes. Journal of College Student Development, 46(5), 487-500.[Download]
    168. Gilbert, G. R. (2003). Is Business Mistreating America’s Model Minority? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33(8), 1571-1587.[Download]
    169. Gee, H. (2009). Review Essay: Asian Americans, Critical Race Theory, and the End of the Model Minority Myth. Temple Political & Civil Rights Law Review, 19(1), 149-186.[Download]
    170. Goo, K. J. (2006). The Self-Confession of the Model Minority: Focusing on the Characteristics of Korean-Russian Literature. 현대문학의 연구, 29(1), 171–199. [Download]
    171. Gym, H. (2011, Summer). Tiger Moms and the Model Minority Myth. Rethinking Schools, 25(4), 34-35.[Download]
    172. Gamboa, S. (2013). Asian-Americans seek to move beyond ‘model minority’ myth. Community College Week, 25(23), 13. [Download]
    173. Hartlep, N. D. (2014, May 12). Are Asian Americans Really a Model Minority? A National Look at Endowed Professors of Education. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education[Download]
    174. Hartlep, N. D. (2014). Asian (American) Model Minorities. Studies on Asia, 4(1), 1–6.  [Download]
    175. Hartlep, N. D. (2014). Modern Em(body)ments of the Model Minority in South Korea. Studies on Asia, 4(1), 108–123. [Download]
    176. Hartlep, N. D. (2014). Lost Among Caucasians: The Lethal Fallacy of the Model Minority Stereotype. Profiles in Diversity, 16(3), 32–33. [Download]
    177. Hartlep, N. D. (2012). Harvard to the NBA: Deconstructing Jeremy Lin as a “Model Minority.” Korean Quarterly, 15(3), 18. [Download]
    178. Hartlep, N. D. (2014). Lost Among Caucasians: The Lethal Fallacy of the Model Minority Stereotype. Profiles in Diversity, 16(3), 32-33.[Download]
    179. Hartlep, N. D. (2012). A Segmented Assimilation Theoretical Study of the 2002 Asian American Student Population. [Dissertation].[Download]
    180. Hartlep, N. D., & Porfilio, B. (Eds.). (2015). Killing the model minority stereotype: Asian American counterstories and complicity. Charlotte, NC: Information Age.[Download]
    181. Hartlep, N. D., & Morgan, G. B. (2013). An exploratory study of the restricted-use ELS:2002 dataset: Using finite mixture modeling as a way to problematize the “model minority stereotype.” International Journal of Research in Education Methodology, 3(3), 295–304. [Download]
    182. Hartlep, N. D. (In-Press). The Model Minority as a Rhetorical Device. In S. Thompson (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.[Download]
    183. Hartlep, N. D. (2012). “Reading the word and the world”: What does the media really think about the “model minority”? Journal of Media Studies, 27(2), 166–179.
    184. Hartlep, N. (2014). Model minority stereotype/whiz kids. In M. Danico (Ed.), Asian American society: An encyclopedia (Vol. 13, pp. 683-686). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. [Download]
    185. Hartlep, N. D., & Bui, P. (2020). Vietnamese students and the emerging model minority myth in Germany. In S. Steinberg, & B. Down (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of critical pedagogies (pp.  518–536). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Steinberg & Down_V1_Chp48_3pp
    186. Hanson, S. L., & Meng, Y. (2008). Science Majors and Degrees Among Asian-American Students: Influences of Race and Sex in “Model Minority” Experiences. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 14(3), 225-252.[Download]
    187. Hang, M., Thanh, P. H. (2018). “Fresh off the boat” and the model minority stereotype: A Foucauldian discourse analysis. VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, 34(5), 85–102. [Download]
    188. Harris, A. L., Jamison, K. M., & Trujillo, M. H. (2008). Disparities in the Educational Success of Immigrants: An Assessment of the Immigrant Effect for Asians and Latinos. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 620(90), 90-114. [Download]
    189. Hartman, J. S., & Askounis, A. C. (1989). Asian-American Students: Are They Really a “Model Minority”? The School Counselor, 37(2), 109-112. [Download]
    190. Hauraki, J. (2005). A Model Minority? Chinese Youth and Mental Health Services in New Zealand. Unpublished dissertation. University of Aukland. [Download]
    191. Healey, J. F. (2009). Asian Americans: “Model Minorities”? In J. F. Healey, Race. Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change (pp. 405-452). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.[Download]
    192. Hurh, W. M., & Kim, K. C. (1989). The ’Success’ Image of Asian Americans: Its Validity, and Its Practical and Theoretical Implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 12(4), 512-538.[Download]
    193. Hayes, M. (1976). Amerasia Dispels Myths of the “Model Minority.” Public Telecommunications Review, 4(4), 54-56. [Download]
    194. Hee, L. S. (2009). Beyond Spies and Model Minorities: The Possibility of a Diasporic Subjectivity in Native Speaker and Gesture Life. 새한영어영문학, 51(2), 133–155. [Download]
    195. Hewlett, S. A., Rashid, R., Forster, D., & Ho, C. (2011). Asians in America: Unleashing the Potential of the “Model Minority.” New York: Center for Work-Life Policy.[Download]
    196. Ho, P. (2003). (E)racing the Model Minority: Racial Ideology Among Young Urbanized Asian American Professionals. Unpublished dissertation. University of Southern California. [Download]
    197. Ho, P. (2003). Performing the “Oriental”: Professionals and the Asian Model Minority Myth. Journal of Asian American Studies, 6(2), 149–175. [Download]
    198. Hoy, R. R. (1993). A ‘Model Minority’ Speaks Out on Cultural Shyness. Science, 262(5136), 1117-1118.[Download]
    199. Human Behavior. (1978, December). Model Minority: Japanese Join Mainstream America. 59.[Download]
    200. Hall, R. E. (2002). Myth of the “Model Minority”: Stereotype and the Reality of Asian-American Gangs. Asian Profile, 30(6), 541-548.[Download]
    201. Hall, R. E. (2001). “Model Minority” as Eurocentric Stereotype: Southeast Asian Gangs. Loyola Journal of Social Sciences, 15(2), 135-146.[Download]
    202. Hayashi, M. C. (2003). Far From Home: Shattering the Myth of the Model Minority. Irving, TX: Tapestry Press.[Download]
    203. Hardiman, M. J. (1989). The Myth of the Model Minority: Depression and Low Self Esteem in Chinese Americans. [Dissertation]. [Download]
    204. Hirata, T. M. (1999). Valuing Asian Americans: The “Model Minority” Thesis and Impoverished Conceptions of Equality in Racial Politics. [Dissertation].[Download]
    205. Ho, H. K. (2016). The Model Minority in the Zombie Apocalypse: Asian-American Manhood on AMC’s The Walking Dead. The Journal of Popular Culture, 49(1), 57–76. [Download]
    206. Hogan, C. M. (2010). The Self-Protective Function of the Model Minority Myth for White Americans. [Dissertation]. [Download]
    207. Hutchinson, P. A. (2009). From “Aliens Ineligible for Citizenship” to the “Model Minority”: Asian Americans and the State in the (Post-) Civil Rights Era. [Thesis].[Download]
    208. Hirschman, C., & Wong, M. G. (1986). The Extraordinary Educational Attainment of Asia-Americans: A Search for Historical Evidence and Explanations. Social Forces, 65(1), 1-27. [Download]
    209. Hadar, L. (2012, April 3). Latest Example of a Success Story – Korea-Born Doctor’s Nomination as World Bank Chief Highlights Asian-Americans’ Contributions in Various Fields in the US. The Business Times. [Download]
    210. Helweg, A. (2005). Model Minority. In C. Skutsch (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the World’s Minorities (Volume 2) (pp. 832-834). New York: Routledge.[Download]
    211. Hu, A. (1989). Asian Americans: Model Minority or Double Minority? Amerasia, 15(1), 243–257.[Download]
    212. Hsu, R. Y. (1996). “Will the Model Minority Please Identify Itself?” American Ethnic Identity and Its Discontents. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 5(1), 37-63.[Download]
    213. Hsu, M. Y. (2015). The good immigrants: How the yellow peril became the model minority. New York: Princeton University Press.[Download]
    214. Hsu, M. Y., & Wu, E. (2015). “Smoke and mirrors”: Conditional inclusion, model minorities, and the pre-1965 dismantling of Asian exclusion. Journal of American Ethnic History, 34(4), 43–65.[Download]
    215. Horsburgh, B. (1999). The Myth of a Model Minority: The Transformation of Knowledge Into Power. UCLA Women’s Law Journal, 10, 165-202.[Download]
    216. Huynh, J. (2019). Challenging the model minority myth as a first-generation college student. The Vermont Connection, 40, 123–131. [Download]
    217. Hawkins, N. (2009). Becoming a Model Minority: The Depiction of Japanese Canadians in the Globe and Mail, 1946-2000. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 41(1-2), 137-154.[Download]
    218. Howard B. Slaughter JR, A model minority [Download]
    219. Ho, J. (2021). Yellow Peril, model minority, and anti-Asian racism during COVID-19. The Electrochemical Society. [Download]
    220. Hattori, T. (1999). Model Minority Discourse and Asian American Jouis-Sense. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies, 11(2), 228-247.[Download]
    221. Huang, J. (2002). The model minority thesis: Myth and reality. Journal of Northeast Normal University, 6(200), 51–59. [Download]
    222. Ibaraki, A. Y., Hall, G. C. N., & Sabin, J. A. (2014). Asian American cancer disparities: The potential effects of model minority health stereotypes. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 5(1), 75–81.  [Download]
    223. Iino, M. (1989). Japanese Americans in Contemporary American Society: A Success Story? Japanese Journal of American Studies, 3, 115–140.[Download]
    224. Inkelas, K. K. (2006). Racial Attitudes and Asian Pacific Americans: Demystifying the Model Minority. New York: Routledge. [Download]
    225. Iijima, C. K. (1998). Political Accommodation and the Ideology of the “Model Minority”:Building a Bridge to White Minority Rule in the 21st Century. Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal, 7(1), 1-40.[Download]
    226. Iijima, C. K. (1998). Reparations and the “Model Minority” Ideology of Acquiescence: The Necessity to Refuse the Return to Original Humiliation. Boston College Law Review, 40(1), 385–427.[Download]
    227. Inkelas, K. K. (2000). Demystifying the Model Minority: The Influences of Identity and the College Experience on Asian Pacific American Undergraduates’ Racial Attitudes. [Dissertation].[Download]
    228. Igasaki, P. (1986, May 9). Stereotypes and a ‘Model Minority.’ Chicago Tribune, 23.[Download]
    229. Irgil, E. (2020). Commissioned book review: Madeline Y. Hsu, The Good Immigrants: How the Yellow Peril Became the Model Minority. Political Studies Review, 18(2) (202005): NP9-NP10. [Download]
    230. Iwamoto, D., Lejuez, C. W., Hamilton, E., & Grivel, M. (2015). Model minority stereotype, psychological distress, substance use among Asian-American young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 146(146).[Download]
    231. Iwata, J. (2021). The imposter phenomenon among Asian Americans: Parental expectations, model minority expectations, and self-differentiation. Scripps Senior Theses. [Download]
    232. Junn, J. (2007). From Coolie to Model Minority. Du Bois Review, 4(2), 355-373.[Download]
    233. Jang, D., & Surapruik, A. (2009). Not the Model Minority: How to Address Disparities in Asian American Health Care. Asian American Policy Review, 18, 91-106.[Download]
    234. Jeon, J. (2019). The model-minority bubble. In S. Marcus & C. Zaloom (Eds.), Think in public: A public books reader (pp. 393–396). New York: Columbia University Press. [Download]
    235. Johnson, B. D., & Betsinger, S. (2009). Punishing the “Model Minority”: Asian-American Criminal Sentencing Outcomes in Federal District Courts. Criminology, 47(4), 1045-1090.[Download]
    236. Johnson, R., Kim, J. Y. C., & Lee, J. Y. (2016). Asians and the myth of the model minority in higher education: A psychocultural reality in the 21st century. In N. P.Ololube (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Organizational Justice and Culture in Higher Education Institutions (pp. 448–469). Hershey, PA: IGI. [Download]
    237. Jung, J. (1985, November). The Model Minority? [Review of S. Sue & J. K. Morishima, The Mental Health of Asian-Americans. Jossey-Bass, 1982.] Contemporary Psychology: A Journal of Reviews, 30(11), 895-896.[Download]
    238. Kagawa-Singer, M. (2008). The Other Side of the Model Minority Coin. AAPI Nexus, 6(1), 1-3[Download]
    239. Kalman-Lamb, N. (2013). The Athlete as model minority subject: Jose Bautista and Canadian multiculturalism. Social Identities, 19(2), 238-253.[Download]
    240. Karkhanis, S., & Tsai, B. L. (Eds.). (1989). Educational Excellence of Asian Americans: Myth or Reality. New York, NY: The Asian/Pacific American Librarians Association.[Download]
    241. Kato, N. R. (1999). Asian Americans Defy “Model Minority” Myth. In Y. Alaniz & N. Wong (Eds.), Voices of Color (pp. 150-153). Seattle, WA: Red Letter Press.[Download]
    242. Kim, D. Y. (2020). Military orientalism and the intimacies of collaboration: Sacrifice and the construction of the Nisei citizen-soldier as a model minority. In D. Y. Kim (Ed.), The intimacies of conflict: Cultural memory and the Korean War (pp. 85-97). New York: New York University Press. [Download]
    243. Kim, H., & Valadez, J. R. (1995). Reexamination of the Model Minority Stereotype: An Analysis of Factors Affecting Higher Education Aspirations of Asian American Students. ERIC Document ID: ED391417.[Download]
    244. Kim, N. (2013). Too smart for his own good? The devolution of a “model” Asian American student. Asian American Law Journal, 20(1), 83–106. [Download]
    245. Kim, W. (2020). Yellow peril or model minority: The Narrative of Resistance in Yoshiko Uchida’s Picture Bride. ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes and Reviews. [Download] 
    246. Kobayashi, F. (2010). From Middleman to Model Minority: Japanese Americans Facing Barriers. 茨城大学人文学部紀要. 人文コミュニケーション学科論集, 9, 47-54.[Download]
    247. Kobayashi, F. (1999). Model Minority Stereotype Reconsidered. ERIC Document ID: ED434167.[Download]
    248. Koh, H. H. (1987). Looking Beyond Achievement: After “The Model Minority” Then What?Korean and Korean-American Studies Bulletin, 3(1&2), 15-19.[Download]
    249. Koo, D. K. (2003). Testing Assumptions: IQ, Japanese Americans, and the Model Minority Myth in the 1920s and 1930s. In S. Chan (Ed.), Remapping Asian American History (pp. 69–85). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.[Download]
    250. Kagawa-Singer, M., & Hune, S. (Eds.). (2011). Forging the Future: The Role of New Research, Data, and Policies for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders. AAPI Nexus Journal, 9(1&2), iii-268. [Download]
    251. Kawai, Y. (2005). Stereotyping Asian Americans: The Dialectic of the Model Minority and Yellow Peril. Howard Journal of Communications, 16(2), 109–130.[Download]
    252. Kibria, N. (2002). The Model Minority at Work. In N. Kibria, Becoming Asian American: Second-Generation Chinese and Korean American Identities (pp. 131-158). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.[Download]
    253. Kim, C., & Sakamoto, A. (2014). American men: Educational selectivity and the model minority image. Social Problems, 61(2), 283–304. [Download]
    254. Kim, L. S. (2008). Continuing Significance of the Model Minority Myth: The Second Generation. Social Justice, 35(2), 134-144.[Download]
    255. Kim, P. S. (1994). Myth and Realities of the Model Minority. The Public Manager, 23(3), 31-35.[Download]
    256. Kim, R. Y., & Im. H. (2008). Looking Beyond the Model Asian Family Images: The Case of Korean American Immigrant Marriages and Families. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting. Pp. 1-23.[Download]
    257. Kitano, H., & Sue, S. (1973). The Model Minorities. Journal of Social Issues, 29(2), 1-9.[Download]
    258. Kramer, E. M. (Ed.). (2003). The Emerging Monoculture: Assimilation and the “Model Minority.” Westport, CT: Praeger. [Download]
    259. Kramer, E. (2003). Introduction: Assimilation and the Model Minority Ideology. In E. M. Kramer (Ed.), The Emerging Monoculture: Assimilation and the “Model Minority” (pp. xi-xxi). Westport, CT: Praeger.[Download]
    260. Kurashige, S. (2008). Toward a Model Minority. In S. Kurashige, The Shifting Grounds of Race: Black and Japanese Americans in the Making of Multiethnic Los Angeles: Toward A Model Minority (pp. 186-204). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.[Download]
    261. Kurashige, S. (2011). From “yellow peril” to “model minority”: Japanese Americans and racial ideology in U.S. history. Rikkyo American Studies, 33, 57–74. [Download]
    262. Kim, E. H. (1975). The Myth of Asian American Success. Asian American Review, 2(1), 122-149.[Download]
    263. Kim, P. Y., & Lee, D. (2013). Internalized model minority myth, Asian values, and help-seeking attitudes among Asian American students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(1), 98–106. [Download]
    264. Kim, P. Y., & Lee, D. (2013, August 5). Internalized Model Minority Myth, Asian Values, and Help-Seeking Attitudes Among Asian American Students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Advance online publication. [Download]
    265. Kao, G. (1995). Asian Americans as Model Minorities?: A Look at Their Academic Performance. American Journal of Education, 103(2), 121–159. [Download]
    266. Khator, R. (2010). Breaking the Bamboo Ceiling. Presidency, 13(2), 28-31.[Download]
    267. Kim, K. C., & Hurh, W. M. (1983). Korean Americans and the “Success” Image:” A Critique. Amerasia Journal, 10(2), 3-21.[Download]
    268. Kelsey, M. E. (1994). Welfare Policies and Racial Stereotypes: The Structural Construction of a Model Minority. Exploration in Ethnic Studies, 17(1), 63-78.[Download]
    269. Koo, D. J., Peguero, A. A., & Shekarkhar, Z. (2012). The “Model Minority” Victim:Immigration, Gender, and Asian American Vulnerabilities to Violence at School. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 10(2), 129-147.[Download]
    270. Kim, B. L. (1973). Asian-Americans: No Model Minority. Social Work, 18(1), 44–53.[Download]
    271. Kim, D. (2013). Model Minority. [Thesis]. University of Maryland, College Park. [Download]
    272. Kim, H. H. (2014). How the model minority thesis became a transcendent meaning. Christian Scholar’s Review, 43(2), 109-129.[Download]
    273. Kuramoto, F. H. (1994). Drug Abuse Prevention Research Concerns in Asian and Pacific Islander Populations. In A. Cázares & L. A. Beatty (Eds.), Scientific Methods for Prevention Research (NIH Publication No. 94-3631) (pp. 249-272). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.[Download]
    274. Kwak, H. (2020). Co-opted by U.S. Capital: A Diachronic Study of Korean Americans’ Relation to the Model Minority Myth. Social Sciences, 1(1), 1–5. [Download] 
    275. Laybourn, S. M. (2020). Adopting the model minority myth: Korean adoption as a racial project. Social Problems, spz060. [Download]
    276. Lee, S. J., & Hong, J. J. (2020). Model minorities and perpetual foreigners: Stereotypes of Asian Americans. In J. T. Nadle & E. C. Voyles (Eds.), Stereotypes: The incidence and impacts of bias (pp. 165–174). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. [Download]
    277. Lee, P. A, & Ying, Y. (2001). Asian American Adolescents’ Academic Achievement: A Look Behind the Model Minority Image. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 3(3/4), 35-48 [Download]
    278. Lee, R. G. (1999). The Model Minority as Gook. In R. G. Lee, Orientals: Asian Americans in Popular Culture (pp. 180-203). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. [Download]
    279. Lee, S. J. (2003). Model Minorities and Perpetual Foreigners: The Impact of Stereotyping on Asian American Students. In M. Sadowski (Ed.), Adolescents at School: Perspectives on Youth, Identity, and Education (pp. 41–49). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. [Download]
    280. Lee, S. J. (2007). The Truth and Myth of the Model Minority: The Case of Hmong Americans. In S. J. Paik & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Narrowing the Achievement Gap: Strategies for Educating Latino, Black, and Asian Students (pp. 171-184). [Download]
    281. Lee, S. J. (2009). Unraveling the “Model Minority” Stereotype: Listening to Asian American Youth (2nd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press. [Download]
    282. Lee, S. J. (1994). Behind the Model-Minority Stereotype: Voices of High- and Low-Achieving Asian American Students. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 25(4), 413-429.[Download]
    283. Lee, S. J. (2005). Up Against Whiteness: Race, School, and Immigrant Youth. New York: Teachers College Press.[Download]
    284. Lee, S. J. (2001). More than “Model Minorities” or “Delinquents”: A Look at Hmong Americans High School Students. Harvard Educational Review, 71(3), 505–528. [Download]
    285. Lim, H. (2009). Illusive Ideologies: Model Minority, Transnationalism, and Korean-American Working Class Students’ Broken Dreams. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 53rd Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Francis Marion Hotel, Charleston, South Carolina. [Download]
    286. Loh, L. M. (2013). Reaction to: Asian Americans and affirmative action: Why affirming affirmative action won’t hurt “the model minority.” The Georgetown Journal of Law and Modern Critical Race Perspectives, 5(2), 139-140.[Download]
    287. Lee, S. J., & Kumashiro, K. (2005). A Report on the Status of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Education: Beyond the “Model Minority” Stereotype. Washington, DC: National Education Association.[Download]
    288. Lew, J. (2004). The “Other” Story of the Model Minorities: Korean American High School Dropouts in an Urban Context. Anthropology of Education Quarterly, 35(3), 297-311.[Download]
    289. Lawler, A. (2000). Silent No Longer: ‘Model Minority’ Mobilizes. Science, 290(5494), 1072-1077.[Download]
    290. Lee, R. G. (2010). The Cold War Origins of the Model Minority Myth. In J. Y.-S. Wu & T. C. Chen (Eds.), Asian American Studies Now: A Critical Reader (pp. 256-271). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. [Download]
    291. Lee, S. J., Wong, N. A., Alvarez, A. N. (2009). The Model Minority and the Perpetual Foreigner: Stereotypes of Asian Americans. In N. Tewari & A. N. Alvarez (Eds.), Asian American Psychology: Current Perspectives (pp. 69-85). New York: Psychology Press.[Download]
    292. Leung, M. (2013). Jeremy Lin’s model minority problem. Contexts, 12(3), 52–56. [Download]
    293. Leung, Y. L. (2002). The Model Minority Myth: Asian Americans Confront Growing Backlash. In L. J. McIntyre (Ed.), The Practical Skeptic: Readings in Sociology (pp. 321–325). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill. [Download]
    294. Leong, F. T. L., Chao, R. K., & Hardin, E. E. (2000). Asian American Adolescents: A Research Review to Dispel the Model Minority Myth. In R. Montemayor, G. R. Adams, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Adolescent Diversity in Ethnic, Economic, and Cultural Contexts (pp. 179-207). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications[Download]
    295. Li, J. (2004). Exploring Asian Americans: The Myth of the “Model Minority” and the Reality of Their Lives. In A. Konradi & M. Schmidt (Eds.) Reading Between the Lines: Toward an Understanding of Current Social Problems (3rd ed.) (pp. 198-207). Boston, MA: McGraw Hill Higher Education.[Download]
    296. Lindsay, K. (2014). Beyond “Model Minority,” “Superwoman,” and “Endangered Species”: Theorizing Intersectional Coalitions among Black Immigrants, African American Women, and African American Men. Journal of African American Studies, 19(1), 18–35[Download]
    297. Look, A. (1980, November). “Model Minority” Makes Waves: Asian/Pacific American Women on the Move. Ms Gazette, 9, 33.[Download]
    298. Lai, L. (2015). The Model Minority Thesis and Workplace Discrimination of Asian Americans. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 6(1), 93–96. [Download]
    299. Lai, E., & Arguelles, D. (Eds.). (2003). The New Face of Asian Pacific America: Numbers, Diversity & Change in the 21st Century. Berkeley, CA: UCLA Asian American Studies Center Press.[Download]
    300. Lee, S., & Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (2009). Beyond the “Model Minority” Stereotype: Trends in Health Risk Behaviors Among Asian/Pacific Islander High School Students. Journal of School Health, 79(8), 347-354. [Download]
    301. Lee, S., Juon, H., Martinez, G., Hsu, C. E., Robinson, E. S., Bawa, J., & Ma, G. X. (2009). Model Minority at Risk: Expressed Needs of Mental Health by Asian American Young Adults. Journal of Community Health. 34(2), 144-152.[Download]
    302. Leong, F., Leach, M., Yeh, C., & Chou, E. (2007). Suicide Among Asian Americans: What Do We Know? What Do We Need To Know? Death Studies, 31(5), 417-434.[Download]
    303. Lester, D. (1992). Suicide Among Asian Americans and Social Deviancy. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75(3) 1134.[Download]
    304. Lin-Fu, J. S. (1988). Population Characteristics and Health Care Needs of Asian Pacific Americans. Public Health Reports, 103(1), 18-27.[Download]
    305. Lam, D., & Vang, P. N. (2012). Distorted Views and Perceptions of Asian American College Students Under the Model Minority Stereotype. [Thesis].[Download]
    306. Lee, E. (2020). The Good Immigrants: How the Yellow Peril Became the Model Minority by Madeline Y. Hsu (review). Journal of Cold War Studies, 22(2), 171–173. [Download]
    307. Le, J. A. (2003). Model Minority Deviance: Asian Americans in Juvenile Hall. [Thesis].[Download]
    308. Lee, K. (2012). The Tiger Mother and Model Minority: How the Asian American Parent-Adolescent Relationship Affects Mental Health and Education. [Thesis].[Download]
    309. Lee, N. (2011). The Internalization of the Model Minority Stereotype in Asian American Adolescents and Its Psychological Implications. [Dissertation].[Download]
    310. Leung, B. (1997). Not Your Model Minority: Asian/Asian-American Crime and Gangs. [Thesis].[Download]
    311. Li, M. A. (1993). Vietnamese Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority. [Thesis].[Download]
    312. Lieu, A. (2010). The Effects of the Model Minority Theory on Chinese-Americans and Southeast Asians. [Thesis].[Download]
    313. Liu, M. (2004). The Realities of the Model Minority Myth. [Thesis][Download]
    314. Lord, L., & Linnon, N. (1988, March 14). What Puts the Whiz in Whiz Kids. U.S. News & World Report, 104(1), 48-58.[Download]
    315. Lewis, C. (1991, August 15). Asian-Americans and the ‘Model Minority’ Trap. Chicago Tribune, Section 1, 25.[Download]
    316. Li, Y., & Nicholson, H. L. (2021). When “model minorities” became “yellow peril”–Othering and the racialization of Asian Americans in the COVID-19 pandemic. Sociology Compass, 1, 1–13. [Download]
    317. Lewin, T. (2008, June 10). Report Takes Aim at ‘Model Minority’ Stereotype of Asian-American Students. The New York Times, A18. [Download]
    318. Liu, A. (2007). Asian Americans in Community Colleges: UCLA Community College Bibliography. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 31(7), 607-614.[Download]
    319. Lew, J. W., Chang, J. C., & Wang, W. W. (2005). UCLA Community College Review: The Overlooked Minority: Asian Pacific American Students at Community Colleges. Community College Review, 33(2), 64-84.[Download]
    320. Lee, R. G. (2008). Model Minorities. In J. H. Moore (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Race and Racism (pp. 311-312). Detroit, MI: Thompson Gale.[Download]
    321. Lo, M. (2008). Model Minorities, Models of Resistance: Native Figures in Asian Canadan Literature. Canadian Literature, 196(1), 96-112.[Download]
    322. Li, G., & Wang, L. (Eds.) (2008). Model Minority Myth Revisited: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Demystifying Asian American Educational Experiences. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.[Download]
    323. Li, G. (2009). Behind the “Model Minority” Mask: A Cultural Ecological Perspective on a High Achieving Vietnamese Youth’s Identity and Socio-Emotional Struggles. In C. C. Park, R. Endo, & X. L. Rong (Eds.), New Perspectives on Asian American Parents, Students, and Teacher Recruitment (pp. 165-192). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.[Download]
    324. Lei, J. L. (1998). (Op)posing Representations: Disentangling the Model Minority and the Foreigner. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA, April 13-17, 1998. ERIC ED421564[Download]
    325. Lee, T. (1991). Trapped on a Pedestal: Asian Americans Confront Model-Minority Stereotype. In J. A. Kromowski (Ed.), Racial and Ethnic Relations (pp. 95-98). Guildford, CT: Duskhin Publishing Group.[Download]
    326. Lee, J. K. (2002). Where the Talented Tenth Meets the Model Minority: The Price of Privilege in Wideman’s “Philadelphia Fire” and Lee’s “Native Speaker.” NOVEL: A Forum on Ficution, 35(2/3), 231-257.[Download]
    327. Lee, Y. (2016). From forever foreigners to model minority: Asian American men in sports. Physical Culture and Sport Studies and Research, 72, 23–32. Retrieved
      from [Download]
    328. Loader, A. (2010). We’re Asian, More Expected of Us: Representation, The Model Minority & Whiteness on King of the Hill.” Animation Studies, 5, 16–25. [Download]
    329. Ly, T. (2019). Effects of model minority on adolescents’ mental health. Writing Waves Journal, 1(1), Article 12. [Download]
    330. Ma, Y. (2010). Model Minority, Model for Whom? An Investigation of Asian American Students in Science/Engineering. AAPI Nexus, 8(1), 43-73.[Download]
    331. Mooko, D. R. (1995). The Asian American College Student as Model Minority: The Myth, the Deception and the Paradox. The Vermont Connection, 16, 47-57.[Download]
    332. Man, B. D. (1978). Chinese Occupational Achievement Patterns: The Case of a “Model Minority.” [Dissertation].[Download]
    333. Metzger, K. T. (1997). Ideological Aspects of Stereotyping Asian Americans as a “Model Minority” in Mass Media. [Thesis].[Download]
    334. Michaels, M. (1985, June 2). Where the Family Comes First. Parade Magazine. 4-6.[Download]
    335. McGurn, W. (1991, June 24). The Silent Minority. National Review, 43, 19-20.[Download]
    336. Matthews, J. (1988, June 15). Asians Make ‘Average’ School Academic Giant. Montreal Gazette, A1, A7.  [Download]
    337. Muratsuchi, A. Y. (1989, May 3). Affirmative Action and the “Model Minority.” [Op-Ed.]. The Washington Post, A26.[Download]
    338. Model Minority Myth Interview, WORT 89.9FM (2012).[Download]
    339. Model Minority (2012).[Download]
    340. Media Action Network for Asian Americans (MANAA)[Download]
    341. Macaranas, F. M. (1980). Social Indicators of Education and the Model Minority Thesis. Paper presented at the National Conference of the National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education, April 1980.[Download]
    342. Museus, S. D. (2008). The Model Minority and the Inferior Minority Myths: Understanding Stereotypes and Their Implications for Student Learning. About Campus, 13(3), 2-8.[Download]
    343. Michaels, W. B. (2011). Model Minorities and the Minority Model–The Neoliberal Novel. In L. Cassuto, C. V. Eby, & B. Reiss (Eds.), The Cambridge History of the American Novel (pp. 1016-1030). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.[Download]
    344. Mayeda, D. T. (1999). From Model Minority to Economic Threat: Media Portrayals of Major League Baseball Pitchers Hideo Nomo and Hideki Irabu. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 23(2), 203-217.[Download]
    345. Martinelli, P. C., & Nagasawa, R. (1987). A Further Test of the Model Minority Thesis: Japanese Americans in a Sunbelt State. Sociological Perspectives, 30(3), 266-288.[Download]
    346. Mannur, A. (2005). Model Minorities Can Cook: Fusion Cuisine in Asian America. In S. Davé, L. Nishime & T. G. Oren (Eds.), East Main Street: Asian American Popular Culture (pp. 72-94). New York, NY: New York University Press.[Download]
    347. Mahalingam, R. (2013). Model Minority Myth: Engendering Cultural Psychology of Asian Immigrants. In E. L. Grigorenko (Ed.), Handbook of U.S. Immigration and Education (pp. 119-136). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.[Download]
    348. Mahalingam, R. (2013). Misidentification, Misembodiment and the Paradox of Being a Model Minority. Sikh Formations: Religion, Culture, Theory, 8(3), 299-304.[Download]
    349. Maddux, W. M., Gallinsky, A. D., Cuddy, A. J. C., & Polifroni, M. (2008). When Being a Model Minority is Good…and Bad: Realistic Threat Explains Negativity Toward Asian Americans. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(1), 74-89.[Download]
    350. McIlwain, C. D., & Johnson, L. (2003). Headache and Heartbreak: The Elusiveness of “Model Minority” Status Attainment for African Americans. In E. M. Kramer (Ed.), The Emerging Monoculture: Assimilation and the “Model Minority” (pp. 110-123). Westport, CT: Praeger.[Download]
    351. Nadal, K. L., Pituc, S. T., Johnston, M. P., & Esparrago, T. (2010). Overcoming the Model Minority Myth: Experiences of Filipino American Graduate Students. Journal of College Student Development, 51(6), 694-706. [Download]
    352. Mahalingam, R., & Haritatos, J. (2010). Gender and Model Minority Myth and Psychological Well-Being of Asian Americans. Unpublished Manuscript, University of Michigan. [Download]
    353. Maclear, K. (1994). The Myth of the “Model Minority”: Rethinking the Education of Asian Canadians. Our Schools/Our Selves, 5(3), 54-76.[Download]
    354. Marbley, A. F. (2011). The Asian and Asian American Client’s Story: The Myth of the Model Minority. In A. F. Marbley, Multicultural Counseling: Perspectives from Counselors as Clients of Color (pp. 49-62). New York, NY: Routledge.[Download]
    355. Matthes, M (2007). Chinese Americans – A Model Minority? Munich, Germany: GRIN Publishing.[Download]
    356. McClure, S. M., & Harris, C. A. (Eds.). (2015). Getting real about race: Hoodies, mascots, model minorities, and other conversations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.[Download]
    357. McGowan, M. H., & Lindgren, J. T. (2003). Untangling the Myth of the Model Minority. Northwestern University School of Law: Public Law and Legal Theory Papers, paper 26,1-58. Retrieved on February 6, 2012 [Download]
    358. Mendoza, M. L. (2001). Model Minority Guilt. In V. Nam (Ed.), Yell-Oh Girls! Emerging Voices Explore Culture, Identity, and Growing Up Asian American (pp. 283-286). New York, NY: HarperCollins.[Download]
    359. Miller, F. P., Vandome, A. F., & McBrewster, J. (Eds.). (2009). Model Minority. Beau Bassin, Mauritus: Alphascript Publishing.[Download]
    360. Min, E. (2003). Demythologizing the “Model Minority.” In E. M. Kramer (Ed.), The Emerging Monoculture: Assimilation and the “Model Minority” (pp. 191-202). Westport, CT: Praeger.[Download]
    361. Muse, E. A. (2005). Separateness of Church: Counter-Culture and the Model Minority. In E. A. Muse, The Evangelical Church in Boston’s Chinatown: A Discourse of Language, Gender, and Identity (pp. 107–134). New York: Routledge.[Download]
    362. Museus, S. D., & Kiang, P. N. (2009). Deconstructing the Model Minority Myth and How It Contributes to the Invisible Minority Reality in Higher Education Research. New Directions for Institutional Research, 142, 5-15.[Download]
    363. McIlwain, C. D., & Johnson, L. (2003). Headache and Heartbreak: The Elusiveness of “Model Minority” Status Attainment for African Americans. In E. M. Kramer (Ed.), The Emerging Monoculture: Assimilation and the “Model Minority” (pp. 110-123). Westport, CT: Praeger. [Download]
    364. Nakayama, T. K. (1988). “Model Minority” and the Media: Discourse on Asian America. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 12(1), 65–73. [Download]
    365. Nadal, K. L. (2011). Filipino Americans and the Model Minority Myth: Contemporary Experiences in Education, Health, and Society. In K. L. Nadal (Ed.), Filipino American Psychology: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice (pp. 137–160). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. [Download]
    366. Nance, M. (2007). Unmasking the Model Minority Myth. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 24(22), 10–11. [Download]
    367. Nance, M. (2007). Combating the model minority stereotype. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 24(15), 9. [Download]
    368. Ng, K. (2010). Do model minorities drink wine or beer?: The representation of race, elitism and American identity. American Studies, 33(2), 143–163. [Download]
    369. Ng, J. C., Lee, S. S., & Pak, Y. K. (2007). Contesting the Model Minority and Perpetual Foreigner Stereotypes: A Critical Review of Literature on Asian Americans in Education. Review of Research in Education, 31(1), 95–130.[Download]
    370. Ngo, B., & Lee, S. J. (2007). Complicating the Image of Model Minority Success: A Review of Southeast Asian American Education. Review of Educational Research, 77(4), 415–453.[Download]
    371. Nguyen, M. (2021). But what about positive stereotypes? A community based analysis of the model minority myth. The Ethics and Society Blog. [Download]
    372. Nguyen, V. T. (2002). Model Minorities and Bad Subjects. In Race & Resistance: Literature & Politics in Asian America (pp. 143-171). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.[Download]
    373. Nguyen, J., Carter, J. S., & Carter, S. K. (2019). From yellow peril to model minority: Perceived threat by Asian Americans in employment. Social Science Quarterly, 100, 565–577.[Download]
    374. Nguyen, J. (2016). From the yellow peril to the model minority: An experimental survey examining racial attitudes towards Asian Americans. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Sociology in the College of Sciences at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida. Retrieved from[Download]
    375. Niiya, B. (1999). The “Model Minority” Discourse. In G. J. Leonard (Ed.), The Asian Pacific American Heritage: A Companion to Literature and Arts (pp. 35-37). New York: Taylor and Francis.[Download]
    376. Nishioka, J. (2003). The Model Minority? In E. Lai & D. Arguelles (Eds.), The New Face of Asian Pacific America: Numbers, Diversity and Change in the 21st Century (pp. 29-35). Los Angeles, CA: AsianWeek.[Download]
    377. Navaratnam, S. (2011). Guilt, Shame and Model Minorities: How South Asian Youth in Toronto Navigate the Canadian Educational System. [Thesis].[Download]
    378. Dołowy-Rybińska, N. (2011). A Model Minority. Insight Academia, 30(2), 48–49. [Download]
    379. Nahm, H. (2021). Model minority (tres)passing in the BLM age: Asian stereotypes as subversive strategy for combating anti-blackness in Yamamoto’s “A Fire in Fontana” and Ty Pak’s “The Court Interpreter.” philoSOPHIA, 10(2), 254–268. [Download]
    380. Ninh, E. (2015). Model minority narratives and the family. In C. Parikh & D. Y. Kim (Eds.), The Cambridge companion to Asian American literature (pp. 114–128). New York: Cambridge University Press.[Download]
    381. Nguyen, D. N. (2006). Model Minority: A Study on the Background, the Myth, and a Re-Examination. [Thesis].[Download]
    382. Neimark, E. D. (1988, February 12). The New Protestant Ethic is the Asian Ethic. The New York Times [Letter to the Editor], A34.[Download]
    383. Navarette, R. (1989, May 28). Only ‘Model Minorities’ Need Apply. San Francisco Examiner, 20/Z1. [Download]
    384. Noh, J. (2010). Challenging the Minority Myth of Asian Americans and Korean American Students’ Academic Performance: Are Korean American Students the Poster Children of Model Minority? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Atlanta and Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, GA, August 13, 2010. [Download]
    385. Noh, M. S. (2013). From model minority to second-gen stereotypes: Korean Canadian and Korean American accounts. In M. W. Karraker (Ed.), The other people: Interdisciplinary perspectives on migration (pp. 107–125). New York: Palgrave MacMillan. [Download]
    386. Nopper, T. K. (2014). Asian Americans, deviance, crime, and the model minority myth. In S. W. Bowman (Ed.), Color behind bars: Racism in the U.S. Prison system (pp. 207-243). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. Retrieved October 7, 2014, from.[Download]
    387. Okamura, J. Y. (2015). From the ‘yellow peril’ to the ‘model minority.’ Patterns of Prejudice, 49, 179–181 from .[Download]
    388. Pang, V. O., Han, P. P., & Pang, J. M. (2011). Asian American and Pacific Islander Students: Equity and the Achievement Gap. Educational Researcher, 40(8), 378-389.[Download]
    389. Park, C. (2011). Between a Myth and a Dream: The Model Minority Myth, the American Dream, and Asian Americans in Consumer Culture. Unpublished dissertation. Purdue University. [Download]
    390. Park, G. C., & Lee, S. J. (2010). The Model Minority Myth Stereotype and the Underachiever: Academic and Social Struggles of Underachieving Korean Immigrant High School Students. In R. Saran & R. Diaz (Eds.), Beyond Stereotypes: Minority Children of Immigrants in Urban Schools (pp. 13-27). Boston, MA: Sense Publishers.[Download]
    391. Park, E. J. W., & Park, J. S. W. (2005). Engineering the Model Minority. In E. J. W. Park & J. S. W. Park, Probationary Americans: Contemporary Immigration Policies and the Shaping of Asian American Communities (pp. 97–106). New York, NY: Routledge.[Download]
    392. Parks, S. J., & Yoo, H. C. (2016). Does endorsement of the model minority myth relate to anti-Asian sentiments among White college students? The role of color-blind racial attitude. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 7(4), 287–294. Retrieved from [Download]
    393. Parpana, K. J. P. (2016, Spring). Not America’s next top model (minority): The advising experience of graduating Filipino students at a large public research institution. Thesis (M.A., Education [Higher Education Leadership])–California State University, Sacramento, 2016.[Download]
    394. Peng, L. (2005, December). The “Model Minority” Checklist. Hardboiled: The Asian American Newsmagazine, 9(3), 5. Retrieved on March 16, 2012.[Download]
    395. Panelo, N. D. (2010). The Model Minority Student: Asian American Students and the Relationships Between Acculturation to Western Values, Family Pressures, and Mental Health Concerns. The Vermont Connection, 31, 147-155.[Download]
    396. Park, C. (2011). Between a Myth and a Dream: The Model Minority Myth, the American Dream, and Asian Americans in Consumer Culture. [Dissertation].[Download]
    397. Patel, N. (2003). The Relationship between Acculturation and Internalization of the Model Minority Stereotype in a Sample of Asian American Undergraduate Students. [Thesis].[Download]
    398. Pope, J. J. (2005). Exploring the Origins of the Model Minority Myth: A Visual and Cultural Analysis of Idaho’s Japanese American Detainment Camp. [Thesis].[Download]
    399. Pon, G. (2000). Importing the Asian model minority discourse into Canada: Implications for social work and education. Canadian Social Work Review, 17(2), 277-291.[Download]
    400. Poy, K. (2000). The Model Minority Stereotype: The Cost of the American Dream for Asian Americans. [Thesis].[Download]
    401. Petersen, W. (1966, January 6). Success Story: Japanese American Style. The New York Times Magazine, 20-21, 33, 36, 38, 40.[Download]
    402. Page, C. (2007). Defining a New “Model Minority.” Oakland Tribune. [Op/Ed].[Download]
    403. Pimental, B. (2001, August 5). Model Minority Image is a Hurdle. San Francisco Chronicle,A25.[Download]
    404. Page, C. (1986, July 30). Asian Americans: Our ‘Model Minority?’ Chicago Tribune, 11.[Download]
    405. Page, C. (1987, November 18). Prejudice Follows Prominence for a ‘Model Minority.’ Chicago Tribune, Section 1, 21.[Download]
    406. Park, R. (2007). Neverperfect [DVD]. New York, NY: Cinema Guild.[Download]
    407. Pang, V. O., & Palmer, J. D. (2012). Model Minorities and the Model Minorities Myth. In J. A. Banks (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Diversity in Education (p. 1518). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.[Download]
    408. Poon, O. A., & Hune, S. (2009). Countering Master Narratives of the “Perpetual Foreigner” and “Model Minority”: The Hidden Injuries of Race and Asian American Doctoral Students. In M. F. Howard-Hamilton, C. L. Morelon-Quainoo, S. D. Johnson, R. Winkle-Wagner, & L. Santiague (Eds.), Standing on the Outside Looking In: Underrepresented Students’ Experiences in Advanced-Degree Programs (pp. 82-102). Sterling, VA: Stylus. [Download]
    409. Poon-McBrayer, K. F. (2011) Model Minority and Learning Disabilities: Double Jeopardy for Asian Immigrant Children in the USA. Global Studies of Childhood, 1(2), 152-158.[Download]
    410. Poon, O., Squire, D., Kodama, C., Byrd, A., Chan, J., Manzano, L., Furr, S., &
      Bishundat, D. (2015). A critical review of the model minority myth in selected literature on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in higher education. Review of Educational Research. Retrieved from.[Download]
    411. Park, G. C. (2009). Becoming a “Model Minority”: Schooling and Peer-Relations in American Identity formation of Korean Immigrant Students. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 53rd Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Francis Marion Hotel, Charleston, South Carolina, March 22, 2009. [Download]
    412. Park, G. (2011). Becoming a “Model Minority”: Acquisition, Construction and Enactment of American Identity for Korean Immigrant Students. Urban Review, 43(5), 620-635.[Download]
    413. Paek, H. J., & Shah, H. (2003). Racial Ideology, Model Minorities, and the “Not-So-Silent Partner:” Stereotyping of Asian Americans in U.S. Magazine Advertising. Howard Journal of Communications, 14(4), 225–243. [Download]
    414. Parmley, S. (1990, August 20). The ‘Model Minority’ Myth. The Boston Globe, 238(51), 1, 8-9. [Download]
    415. Qin, D. B., Way, N., & Rana, M. (2008). The “Model Minority” and Their Discontent: Examining Peer Discrimination and Harassment of Chinese American Immigrant Youth. In H. Yoshikawa & N. Way (Eds.), Beyond the family: Contexts of immigrant children’s development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 121, 27–42.[Download]
    416. Qin, D. B., Way, N., & Mukherjee, P. (2008). The Other Side of the Model Minority Story: The Familial and Peer Challenges Faced by Chinese American Adolescents. Youth & Society, 39(4), 480-506[Download]
    417. Qu, L. (2007). Model minority stereotype: A disservice to both Asian Americans and other minority groups in the U.S. Unpublished thesis, China Foreign Affairs University Beijing, China.
    418. Quindlen, A. (1987, February 22). The Drive to Excel. The New York Times Magazine, 32-40. [Download]
    419. Qin, D. B., Way, N., & Rana, M. (2008). The “Model Minority” and Their Discontent:Examining Peer Discrimination and Harassment of Chinese American Immigrant Youth. In H. Yoshikawa & N. Way (Eds.), Beyond the family: Contexts of immigrant children’s development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 121, 27–42.[Download]
    420. Raecker, A. E. (2021). The internalization of the model minority myth and its effect on Asian American students’ academic stress. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. University of Northern Iowa. [Download]
    421. Ramasubramanian, S. (2011). Television exposure, model minority portrayals, and Asian-American stereotypes: An exploratory study. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 26, 1-15. [Download]
    422. Ramirez, C. S. (2020). The moral economy of deservingness, from the model minority to the dreamer. In. C. S. Ramirez Assimilation: An alternative history (pp. 79–111). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. [Download]
    423. Rohrlick, J., Alvarado, D., Zaruba, K. (1998). From the Model Minority to the Invisible Minority: Asian & Pacific American Students in Higher Education Research. Paper presented at the Association for Institutional Research (AIR), May  1998[Download]
    424. Rigdon, J. E. (1991, July 10). Exploding Myth: Asian American Youth Suffer a Rising Toll from Heavy Pressures. Wall Street Journal, A1. [Download]
    425. Rimando, R. H. (2011). Not Overrepresented: The Model Minority Stereotype at an Asian American Native American Pacific Islander Serving Institution. [Dissertation].[Download]
    426. Ramirez, A. (1986, November 24). America’s Super Minority. Fortune, 104, 148-149, 152, 156, 160, 161. [Download]
    427. Reece, R. (2012). King of the Hill’s Souphanousiphones, the new model minority, and the subversive model minority. Unpublished master’s thesis. University of Mississippi. [Download]
    428. Reglin, G. L., & Adams, D. R. (1990). Why Asian-American High School Students Have Higher Grade Point Averages and SAT Scores than Other High School Students. High School Journal, 73, 143-149.[Download]
    429. Roberts, S. (1985, December 19). Amazing Asians: The Secret of their Academic Success. The Columbia Flier, 18(28), 38-41. [Download]
    430. Rich, S. (1985, October 10). Asian Americans Outperform Others in School and Work: Census Data Outlines ‘Model Minority.’ Washington Post, A1 & A19.[Download]
    431. Rim, K. H. (2007). Model Victim, or Problem Minority? Examining the Socially Constructed Identities of Asian-Origin Ethnic Groups in California’s Media. Asian American Policy Review, 16, 37-60.[Download]
    432. Riess, J. (2011, October 4). A ‘Model Minority’ Blends In: Normal Mormons. Christian Century, 128(20), 22-25.[Download]
    433. Rigdon, J. E. (1991, July 10). Exploding Myth: Asian American Youth Suffer a Rising Toll from Heavy Pressures. Wall Street Journal, A1. [Download]
    434. Ryu, M. (2015). Understanding Korean transnational girls in high school Science classes: Beyond the model minority stereotype. Science Education, 99(2), 350–377. [Download]
    435. Saito, N. T. (1997). Model minority, yellow peril: Functions of foreignness in the construction of Asian American legal identity. Asian Law Journal, 71(4), 71-95. Retrieved from [Download]
    436. Sabato, T. (2016). Breaking the model minority stereotype: An exploration of Asian American and Pacific Islander student substance abuse. College Student Journal, 50(4), 477–488. Retrieved from [Download]
    437. Saran, R. (2007). Model Minority Imaging in New York: The Situation with Second Generation Asian Indian Learners in Middle and Secondary Schools. The Anthropologist: Special Issue, 2, 67–79.[Download]
    438. Saran, R. (Ed.). (2015). Navigating model minority stereotypes: Asian Indian youth in South Asian diaspora. New York: Routledge. [Download]
    439. Schenck, A. D. (2013). Korea’s “model minority”: A case study of an American-Korean bilingual student’s challenges learning English in South Korea. Journal of International Education and Leadership, 13(3), 1–15.[Download]
    440. Shams, T. (2019). Successful yet precarious: South Asian muslim Americans, Islamophobia, and the model minority myth. Sociological Perspectives. [Download]
    441. Silva, J. (1995, April 21). The Rich Model Minority. Asian Week, 16(34), 2. [Download]
    442. Skop, E. (2016). The model minority stereotype in Arizona’s anti-immigrant climate: SB1070 and discordant reactions from Asian Indian migrant organizations. GeoJournal, 9, 1–14.
    443. Song, J. (2013). The role of the model minority stereotype in Asian American students’ college experiences. Unpublished thesis, The Ohio State University. [Download]
    444. Stanley, J. C. (1988, March/April). The Gifted Child Today: Do Asian Americans Tend to Reason Better Mathematically than White Americans. The Gifted Children Today, 11, 32.[Download]
    445. Teranishi, R. T. (2002). The Myth of the Super Minority: Misconceptions About Asian Americans. The College Board Review, 195, 17-21[Download]
    446. Santos, J. (2019). Christian conversion to the model minority in John Okada’s No-No Boy. College Literature, 46(2), 371–393. [Download]
    447. Saphir, A. (1997). Asian Americans and Cancer: Discarding the Myth of the “Model Minority.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 89(21), 1572–1574.[Download]
    448. SPRC (Suicide Prevention Resource Center). (n.d.). Suicide Among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. Retrieved on December 10, 2011. [Download]
    449. Sue, S., Sue, D. W., Sue, L., & Takeuchi, D. T. (1995). Psychopathology Among Asian Americans: A Model Minority? Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 1(1), 39-51.[Download]
    450. Sandip (2004). Whose Model Minority? [Editorial]. Trikone, 19(4), 2. [Download]
    451. Sandosharaj, A. (2008). Ghetto Proclivities: Race and Class in a Model Minority Memoir [Dissertation].[Download]
    452. Shim, H. (1997). The Invisible “Model Minority”: Images of Koreans on American TV.[Thesis].[Download]
    453. Soodjinda, D. (2009). A Response to the Model Minority Thesis: Intragroup Differences Among Asian American College Students in the Los Angeles Community College District. [Dissertation].[Download]
    454. Suk, J. L. (1995). Asian-American College Undergraduates’ Perceptions of the “Model Minority” Stereotype: A Descriptive Study. [Thesis].[Download]
    455. Sun, J. (1999). Assessing the “Model Minority” and the “Yellow Peril” Images of Asian Americans: A Content Analysis of Major Newspapers’ Coverage of Asian Americans, 1990 throughout 1997. [Dissertation].[Download]
    456. Sun, W. (2002). Perceptions of Minority Invisibility and Model Minority Status Among Selected Asian American Professionals. [Dissertation].[Download]
    457. Sun, Y. (2011). National Hero and Model Minority: Media Representations of Chien-Ming Wang in Taiwan and in the U.S., 2005 to 2009. [Thesis].[Download]
    458. Sun, J.(2015). Home in the making: The foreign doctor and the model minority myth in Abraham Verghese’s my own country. Interdisciplinary Literary Studies, 17(2),426–439[Download]
    459. Still, T. (1998, March/April). Whiz Kid. Brown Alumni Magazine. 17. [Download]
    460. Strayhorn, T. (2014). Behind the model minority myth: Interrogating the lived experiences of Korean American gay men in college. Journal of College Student Development, 55(6), 586-594. Retrieved from [Download]
    461. Sheppard, R. (1992, February 3). Kitchen Table the Key to Success. The Globe and Mail, A11.[Download]
    462. Seligman, D. (1991, April 15). Is America Smart Enough? National Review, 43(6), 24-31.[Download]
    463. Simon, S. (2012, June 23). Behind The ‘Model Minority,’ An American Struggle. National Public Radio.[Download]
    464. Spring, J. (2001). Asian Americans: Exclusion and Segregation. In J. Spring, Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality: A Brief History of the Education of Dominated Cultures in the United States (3rd ed.) (pp. 55-67). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.[Download]
    465. Shrake, E. K. (2006). Unmasking the Self: Struggling with the Model Minority Stereotype and Lotus Blossom Image. In G. Li & G. H. Beckett (Eds.), “Strangers” of the Academy: Asian Women Scholars in Higher Education (pp. 178-194). Sterling, VA: Stylus.[Download]
    466. Sohn, S. H. (2020). Model minority terrorist: Post-9/11 Asian American racial formation and brown peril narrative discourse in Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist. Journal of Narrative Theory, 50(2), 232–262. [Download]
    467. Stepp, R. (2010, November 15–17). Asian Model Minority Myth. Proceedings of International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation 2010 Conference, 2555–2568. [Download]
    468. Suzuki, B. H. (1980). Education and the Socialization of Asian Americans: A Revisionist Analysis of the “Model Minority” Thesis. In R. Endo, S. Sue, & N. N. Wagner (Eds.), Asian-Americans: Social and Psychological Perspectives, Vol. II (pp. 155–175). Ben Lomond, CA: Science and Behavior Books.[Download]
    469. Suzuki, B. H. (2002). Revisiting the Model Minority Stereotype: Implications for Student Affairs Practice and Higher Education. In M. K. McEwen, C. M. Kodama, A. N. Alvarez, S. Lee, & C. T. H. Liang (Eds.), Working with Asian American College Students: New Directions for Student Services (vol. 97, pp. 21–32). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.[Download]
    470. Suzuki, B. H. (1989). Asian Americans as the “Model Minority”: Outdoing Whites? Or Media Hype? Change, 21(6), 13-19. [Download]
    471. Suzuki, M. J. M. (2020). Asian American Students in Independent Schools: Stereotypes, Myths, and Relationships with Other Students of Color. Unpublished dissertation. University of Pennsylvania. [Download]
    472. Suyemoto, K. L., Kim, G. S., Tanabe, M., Tawa, J., & Day, S. C. (2009). Challenging the Model Minority Myth: Engaging Asian American Students in Research on Asian American College Student Experiences. New Directions for Institutional Research, 142, 41–55. [Download]
    473. Sun, C., Miezan, E., & Liberman, R. (2009). Model Minority/Honorable Eunuch: The Dual Image of Asian American Men in the Media and Everyday Perception. In R. Hammer & D. Kellner (Eds.), Media/Cultural Studies: Critical Approaches (pp. 516-536). New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing Group. [Download]
    474. Shim, D. (1998). From Yellow Peril Through Model Minority to Renewed Yellow Peril. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 22(4), 385–409. [Download]
    475. Shida, N. (2007). Becoming a Model Minority: The Portrayal of Japanese Canadians from 1946-2000. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, New York, NY, August 11–14, 2007. [Download]
    476. Shih, K. Y., Chang, T., & Chen, S. (2019). Impacts of the model minority myth on Asian American individuals and families: Social justice and critical race feminist perspectives. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 1–17. [Download]
    477. Sakamoto, A., Takei, I., & Woo, H. (2012). The Myth of the Model Minority Myth. Sociological Spectrum, 32(4), 309–321. [Download]
    478. SPRC (Suicide Prevention Resource Center). (n.d.). Suicide Among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. [Download]
    479. Saphir, A. (1997). Asian Americans and Cancer: Discarding the Myth of the “Model Minority.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 89(21), 1572–1574. [Download]
    480. Sanada, S. (2013). Becoming a Model Minority: Schooling Experiences of Ethnic Koreans in China [Book Review]. Power and Education, 5(2), 200–201. [Download]
    481. Tan, X. (2018). Model minority of a difference kind? Academic competence and behavioral health of Chinese children adopted into White American families. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 9(3), 169–178.[Download]
    482. Tang, M. (2007). Psychological Effects on Being Perceived as a “Model Minority” for Asian Americans. New Waves: Educational Research and Development, 11(3), 11-16.[Download]
    483. Thompson, T. L., & Kiang, L. (2010). The Model Minority Stereotype: Adolescent Experiences and Links With Adjustment. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1(2), 119–128. [Download]
    484. Thompson, T. L., Kiang, L., & Witkow, M. R. (2016). “You’re Asian; You’re supposed to be smart”: Adolescents’ experiences with the model minority stereotype and longitudinal links with identity. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 7(2) 108–119.[Download]
    485. Tak, Y. S. (1992). Asian Americans as the Model Minority: The Stereotype. [Thesis].[Download]
    486. Tandana, C. (2012). The Asian American Dream?: Perspectives From the “Model Minority” In Flushing, Queens. [Thesis].[Download]
    487. Tanenbaum, L. (1997). Model minority. The Women’s Review of Books, 14(9), 7–9. [Download]
    488. Taniguchi, C. A. (2000). Perceptions of Achievement in “Model Minority” Undergraduates [Dissertation].[Download]
    489. Thompson, T. L. (2009). Portrait of a Stereotype: Asian Americans’ Experiences with the Model Minority Stereotype During Adolescence. [Dissertation].[Download]
    490. Tsuru, W. A. (2001). Social Identity Salience and the Effects of Stereotype Consensus in Asian Americans: Revisiting the Model Minority Myth. [Thesis].  [Download]
    491. Toth, R. C. (1977, October 17). Japanese in U.S. Outdo Horatio Alger. Los Angeles Times, 96, 10-11.[Download]
    492. TEDx Redefining “Model Minority” –Prerna Lal (2012).[Download]
    493. Teranishi, R. T. (2010). Asians in the Ivory Tower: Dilemmas of Racial Inequality in American Higher Education. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.[Download]
    494. The National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education (CARE). (2011). The Relevance of Asian Americans & Pacific Islanders in the College Completion Agenda.[Download]
    495. The National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education (CARE). (2010). Federal higher education policy priorities and the Asian American and Pacific Islander community.[Download]
    496. The National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education (CARE). (2008). Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Facts, not Fiction: Setting the record straight.[Download]
    497. Thorton, M., & Tajima, A. (2014). A “model” minority: Japanese Americans as references and role models in Black newspapers, 2000-2010. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 11(2), 139–157. [Download]
    498. Tran, N., & Birman, D. (2010). Questioning the Model Minority: Studies of Asian American Academic Performance. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1(2), 106-118.[Download]
    499. Tran, B. (2016). The impact of the model minority culture in higher education institutions: The cause of Asian Americans’ psychological and mental health. In N. P. Ololube (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Organizational Justice and Culture in Higher Education Institutions (pp. 282–323). Hershey, PA: IGI. [Download]
    500. Uba, L. (1994). Psychopathology in the “Model Minority.” In L. Uba, Asian Americans: Personality Patterns, Identity, and Mental Health (pp. 158-195). New York: Guilford Press.[Download]
    501. U.S. News & World Report. (1966, December 26). Success Story of One Minority Group in the U.S., 73-76.[Download]
    502. Ueda, R. (1989). False Modesty: The Curse of Asian American Success. The New Republic, 201(1), 16-17.[Download]
    503. Unnatural Causes…Is Inequality Making Us Sick? [DVD]. (2001). San Francisco, CA:California Newsreel. [Download]
    504. Victoria, N. A. (2007). A+ Does Not Mean All Asians: The Model Minority Myth and Implications for Higher Education. The Vermont Connection, 28, 80-88.[Download]
    505. Tamura, L. (1995). The Asian-American Man: The Model Minority? In R. L. Cooper (Ed.), We Stand Together: Reconciling Men of Different Color (pp. 61-78). Chicago, IL: Moody Press.[Download]
    506. Takagi, D. Y. (1992). Diversity, Merit, and the Model Minority: “Good but Not Exceptional Students.” In D. Y. Takagi, The Retreat from Race: Asian-American Admissions and Racial Politics (pp. 57-83). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.[Download]
    507. Takaki, R. (2007). Asian Americans: The Myth of the Model Minority. In J. H. Skolnick & E. Currie (Eds.), Crisis in American Institutions (pp. 148-154). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.[Download]
    508. Takaki, R. (1998). Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (Updated and Revised Edition). New York, NY: Back Bay Books.[Download]
    509. Takaki, R. (1995). The Myth of the “Model Minority.” In D. M. Newman (Ed.), Sociology:Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life Readings (pp. 255-259). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.[Download]
    510. Taylor, C. R., Landreth, S., & Bang, H. (2005). Asian Americans in Magazine Advertising:Portrayals of the “Model Minority.” Journal of Macromarketing, 25(2), 163-174.[Download]
    511. Taylor, C. R., & Stern, B. B. (1997). Asian-Americans: Television Advertising and the “Model Minority” Stereotype. Journal of Advertising, 26(2), 47-61. [Download]
    512. Tendulkar, S. A., Hamilton, R. C., Chu, C., Arsenault, L., Duffy, K., Huynh, V., Hung, M., Lee,E., Jane, S., & Friedman, E. (2011). Investigating the “Model Minority”: A Participatory Community Health Assessment of Chinese and Vietnamese Adults. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. Advance online publication. pp. 1-8. doi:10.1007/s10903-011- 9517-y.[Download]
    513. Teshima, D. S. (2006). A “Hardy Handshake Sort of Guy”: The Model Minority and Implicit Bias About Asian Americans in Chin v. Runnels. Asian Pacific American Law Journal, 11, 122-141 Toupin, E., & Son, L. (1991). Preliminary Findings on Asian-Americans: The Model Minority in a Small Private East-Coast College. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 22(3), 403- 417.[Download]
    514. The Myth of the Model Minority. (2011, Winter). Independent School, 70(2), 3-116.Thrupkaew, N. (2002). The Myth of the Model Minority. The American Prospect, 13(7), 38-41.[Download]
    515. Thompson, T. L., & Kiang, L. (2015). The model minority stereotype: Adolescent experiences and links with adjustment. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1(2), 119–128[Download]
    516. Tran, A. (2011, Spring). Asian Americans as the Model Minority. Interpolations. Article 16 of 16, 1-10.[Download]
    517. Tu, D. L. (2011). Model Minority. In J. H. X. Lee & K. M. Nadeau (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Asian American Foklore and Folklife (pp. 69-71). Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing.[Download]
    518. Tan, E. (2010). Asian Boys and the Model Minority Label. In S. R. Steinberg, M. Krehler, & L. Cornish (Eds.), Boy Culture: An Encyclopedia (pp. 54-57). Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood.[Download]
    519. Trytten, D. A., Lowe, A. W., & Walden, S. E. (2012). “Asians are Good at Math. What an Awful Stereotype”: The Model Minority Stereotype’s Impact on Asian American Engineering Students. Journal of Engineering Education, 101(3), 439-468. [Download]
    520. Tang, J. (1997). The Model Minority Thesis Revisited: (Counter)evidence From the Science and Engineering Fields. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 33(3), 291-315.[Download]
    521. Tsunokai, G. T. (2005). Beyond the Lenses of the “Model” Minority Myth: A Descriptive Portrait of Asian Gang Members. Journal of Gang Research, 12(4), 37-58.[Download]
    522. Tayag, M. (2011, Spring). Great Expectations: The Negative Consequences and Policy Implications of the Asian American “Model Minority” Stereotype. Stanford Journal of Asian American Studies, 4, 23-31. [Download]
    523. Thompson, T. L., & Kiang, L. (2010). The Model Minority Stereotype: Adolescent Experiences and Links With Adjustment. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1(2), 119-128.[Download]
    524. Tang, M. (2007). Psychological Effects on Being Perceived as a “Model Minority” for Asian Americans. New Waves: Educational Research and Development, 11(3), 11-16.[Download]
    525. Ueda, R. (1989). The Coolie and the Model Minority: Reconstructing Asian-American History. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 20(1), 117-124. [Download]
    526. Um, K. (2003). A Dream Denied: Educational Experiences of Southeast Asian American Youth,Issues and Recommendations. Washington, DC: Southeast Asia Resource Action Center. Retrieved on January 1, 2012.  [Download]
    527. Vaidhyanathan, S. (2000). Inside a ‘Model Minority’: The Complicated Identity of South Asians.The Chronicle of Higher Education, 46(42), B4.[Download]
    528. Valverde, L. A. (2003). Asian American Paradox: The “Model Minority” Still Begets Exclusion. In L. A. Valverde, Leaders of Color in Higher Education: Unrecognized Triumphs in Harsh Institutions (pp. 117-125). Lanham, MD: AltaMira Pres.[Download]
    529. Varma, R. (2006). (Re)Modeling “Minority.” In R. Varma, Harbingers of Global Change:India’s Techno-Immigrants in the United States (pp. 113-130). Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.[Download]
    530. Van Ziegart, S. (2006). Re-Appropriating the Model Minority Stereotype: Reflections on the 2000 Organization of Chinese Americans Convention. In S. Van Ziegart, Global Spaces of Chinese Culture: Diasporic Chinese Communities in the United States and Germany (pp. 21-58). New York, NY: Routledge.[Download]
    531. Vann, G. (2015). Model minority mismatch: Exploring the community college experience and persistence of Southeast Asian American students. Unpublished Dissertation (Chicago, IL). Retrieved from[Download]
    532. Võ, L. T. (2004). The Politics of Social Services for a “Model Minority”: The Union of Pan Asian Communities. In L. T. Võ, Mobilizing an Asian American Community (pp. 34-65). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. [Download]
    533. Varma, S. C., & Siris, S. G. (1996). Alcohol Abuse in Asian Americans: Epidemiological and Treatment Issues. American Journal of Addictions, 5(2), 136-143 [Download]
    534. Võ, L. T. (2004). The Politics of Social Services for a “Model Minority”: The Union of Pan Asian Communities. In L. T. Võ, Mobilizing an Asian American Community (pp. 34-65). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.[Download]
    535. Yi, V., Mac, J., Na, V. S., Venturanza, R. J., Museus, S. D., Buenavista, T. L., & Pendakur, S. L. (2020). Toward an anti-imperialistic critical race analysis of the model minority myth. Review of Educational Research. 1–38. [Download]
    536. Yoon, E., Choi, Y., Kim, D., & Adams, P. (2021). Acculturation/enculturation and internalized model minority myth in Korean immigrant families. Asian American Journal of Psychology. [Download]
    537. Young, K-R. (2018). Inknography: Digital oral history collection of tattooed Asian Americans challenging the model minority stereotype. In J. H. Clarke, R. Pun, & M. Tong (Eds.), Asian American librarians and library services: Activism, collaborations, and strategies (pp. 79–94). Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.[Download]
    538. Wallitt, R. (2008). Cambodian Invisibility: Students Lost Between the “Achievement Gap” and the “Model Minority.” Multicultural Perspectives, 10(1), 3-9.[Download]
    539. Wang, J. (2019). Review Eleanor Ty’s Asianfail: Narratives of disenchantment and the model minority. Asian Journal of Asian American Studies, 22(1), 125–128. [Download]
    540. Wang, C., Wang, J., & Lin, M. (2021). COVID-19 and Asian phobaia: Anti-Asian racism and model minority myth. Educational Research and Development Journal, 24(2), i–vi. [Download]
    541. Weaver, S. (2009). Perfect in America: Implications of the Model Minority Myth on the Classroom. Colleagues, 4(2), 8–11.[Download]
    542. Wong, M. G. (1980). Model Students? Teachers’ Perceptions and Expectations of Their Asian and White Students. Sociology of Education, 53(4), 236-247.[Download]
    543. Wong, B. (2015). A blessing with a curse: Model minority ethnic students and the construction of educational success. Oxford Review of Education, 11(23), 1–17. Retrieved from[Download]
    544. Yang, K. (2004). Southeast Asian American Children: Not the “Model Minority.” Future of Children, 14(2), 127-133.[Download]
    545. Walker, L. S. (1999, Summer). The Asian American Uniform Myth of Success. Heritage, 13(2),16-17. [Download]
    546. Walker-Moffat, W. (1995). The Other Side of the Asian American Success Story. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. [Download]
    547. Wang, L. L. (2007). Model Minority, High-Tech Coolies, and Foreign Spies: Asian Americans in Science and Technology, With Special Reference to the Case of Dr. Wen Ho Lee. Amerasia Journal, 33(1), 51-61. [Download]
    548. Wei, D. (1986). The Asian American Success Myth. Interracial Books for Children Bulletin,17(3&4), 16-17.[Download]
    549. Winnick, L. (1990). America’s “Model Minority.” Commentary, 90(2), 22-29.[Download]
    550. Wong, L. (1976). The Chinese Experience: From Yellow Peril to Model Minority. Civil Rights Digest, 9(1), 33-35.[Download]
    551. Wong, M. G. (2010). Model Minority or Perpetual Foreigner?: The Political Experience of Asian Americans. In V. Martinez-Ebers & M. Dorraj (Eds.), Perspectives on Race, Ethnicity, and Religion (pp. 153-173). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.[Download]
    552. Wong, W. (1994). Covering the Invisible “Model Minority.” Media Studies Journal, 8(3), 49-59. [Download]
    553. Wong, W. (2001). Crime: Bang, Bang, You’re Dead. In W. Wong (Ed.), Yellow Journalist: Dispatches from Asian America (pp. 206-218). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.[Download]
    554. Woo, D. (2000). The Inventing and Reinventing of “Model Minorities”: The Cultural Veil Obscuring Structural Sources of Inequality. In T. P. Fong & L. H. Shinagawa (Eds.), Asian Americans: Experiences and Perspectives (pp. 193-212). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.[Download]
    555. Wright, D. E., & Hom, H. L. (2003). Altering Frequency Estimates of Hindsight Bias in Others Via Stereotyping: Asians as a Model Minority. Psi Chi Journal of Undergraduate Research, 8(4), 139-143.[Download]
    556. Wright, L. (1988, September 1). Asians as “Model Minority”: Myth, Reality, or Both? American Libraries, 19(8), 667.[Download]
    557. Wang, T. H., & Wu, F. H. (1996, Winter). Beyond the Model Minority Myth: Why Asian Americans Support Affirmative Action. Guild Practitioner, 53, 35-47.[Download]
    558. Weaver, R. (2007, November). Every Coin Has Two Sides: Uncovering the Model Minority Myth. NEA Today, 26(3), 9.[Download]
    559. Wexler, J., & Pyle, N. (2012). Dropout Prevention and the Model-Minority Stereotype: Reflections from an Asian American High School Dropout. The Urban Review. 1-20. doi: 10.1007/s11256-012-0207-4. [Download]
    560. Whitman, D. (1987). Trouble for America’s “Model Minority.” US News and World Report, 102(6), 18-19 [Download]
    561. Winn, A. (2020). A “model” minority: Employment challenges faced by Asian women in the U.S. modeling industry. NYSBA: Labor and Employment Law JOurnal, 43(2), 27–32. [Download]
    562. Wing, J. Y. (2007). Beyond Black and White: The Model Minority Myth and the Invisibility of Asian American Students. The Urban Review, 39(4), 455-487.[Download]
    563. Wu, F. H. (2002). Yellow: Race in America Beyond Black and White. New York, NY: Basic Books.[Download]
    564. Wu, F. H. (2012). The Model Minority: Asian American “Success” as a Race Relations Failure. In K. E. Rosenblum & T. M. C. Travis (Eds.), The Meaning of Difference: American Constructions of Race and Gender, Social Class, Sexual Orientation, and Disability (6th ed.) (pp. 370-378). New York: McGraw Hill. [Download]
    565. Wu, J., Kim, D-Y. (2013). The model minority myth for noncitizen immigration offenses and sentencing outcomes. Race and Justice, 4(4), 1–30. [Download]
    566. Wu, L., & Nguyen, N. (2022). From yellow peril to model minority and back to yellow peril. AERA Open, 8(1), 1–10. [Download]
    567. Wong, L. L., & Wong, C. (2006). Chinese Engineers in Canada: A ‘Model Minority’? and Experiences and Perceptions of the Glass Ceiling. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 12(4), 253-273.[Download]
    568. Wang, Y., Shen, F. C. (2008). Model Minority Myth. Encyclopedia of Counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Retrieved on March 28, 2012.[Download]
    569. Wong, P., Lai, C. F., Nagasawa, R., & Lin, T. (1998). Asian Americans as a Model Minority:Self-Perceptions and Perceptions by Other Racial Groups. Sociological Perspectives,41(1), 95-118.[Download]
    570. Walton, J., & Truong, M. (2021). Understanding the racial grammar of the model minority myth and its impacts. Alfred Deakin Institute International Conference, 2021. [Download]
    571. Watanabe, Y. (1996). The Nisei as Model Minority: Self-Concept and Definition of the American Dream. MultiCultural Review, 4(2), 46-48, 50-53.[Download]
    572. Wang, L. (Ed.). (2007). Demystifying Model Minority’s Academic Achievement: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Studying Asian Americans’ Educational Experiences. New Waves: Educational Research and Development, 11(1), 4-28.[Download]
    573. Wong, E. F. (1985). Asian American Middleman Minority Theory: The Framework of an American Myth. Journal of Ethnic Studies, 13(1), 51-88.[Download]
    574. Wortham, S., Mortimer, K., & Allard, E. (2009). Mexicans as Model Minorities in the New Latino Diaspora. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 40(4), 388-404.[Download]
    575. Wong, F., & Halgin, R. (2006). The “Model Minority”: Bane or Blessing for Asian Americans? Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 34(1), 38-49.[Download]
    576. Wong, L. L., & Wong, C. (2006). Chinese Engineers in Canada: A ‘Model Minority’? and Experiences and Perceptions of the Glass Ceiling. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 12(4), 253-273. [Download]
    577. Wan, Y. (1996). Bearing the Image of Model Minority: An Inside Look Behind the Classroom Door. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Multicultural Education, St. Paul, MN, 1996. ERIC ED404432[Download]
    578. Woo, D. (1997). Asian American Success Is a Myth. In W. Dudley (Ed.), Asian Americans:Opposing Viewpoints (pp. 213-222). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press[Download]
    579. Walsh, J. (1993, Fall). The Perils of Success: Asians Have Become Exemplary Immigrants,But At A Price. Time, 55-56. [Download]
    580. Wong, F., & Halgin, R. (2006). The “Model Minority”: Bane or Blessing for Asian Americans? Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 34(1), 38-49.[Download]
    581. Williams, D. A. (1984, April 23). A Formula for Success. Newsweek, 77-78.[Download]
    582. Wiltshire, A. (2012). Exploring the Model Minority: Views of Asian American Students on School Climate With Implications for School Professionals. [Dissertation]. [Download]
    583. Wu, Y. (2010). Model Minority Stereotypes of Asian American Women in the Media:Perceptions and Influences Among Women of Diverse Racial-Ethnic Backgrounds. [Thesis].[Download]
    584. Wu, E. D. (2013). The color of success: Asian Americans and the origins of the model minority. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. [Download]
    585. Whaley, A. L., & Noel, L. T. (2013). Academic Achievement and Behavioral Health Among Asian American and African American Adolescents: Testing the Model Minority and Inferior Minority Assumptions. Social Psychology of Education, 16(1), 23-43.[Download]
    586. Xiang, S. (2014). The Korean voice of American empire: The democratic spokesman and the model minority narrator. Journal of Asian American Studies, 17(3), 273-304. [Download]
    587. Xu, J., & Lee, J. C. (2013). The Marginalized “Model” Minority : An Empirical Examination of the Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans. Social Forces, 91(4), 1363–1397. [Download]
    588. Xiong, S., & Joubert, C. (2012, July). Demystifying the Model Minority: The Importance of Disaggregating Subgroup Data to Promote Success for Southeast Asian Youth. Fresno, CA: California State University Fresno.  [Download]
    589. Yeh, D. (2014). Contesting the ‘model minority’: Racialization, youth culture and ‘British Chinese’/’Oriental’ nights. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Studies, 37(7), 1197–1210. [Download]
    590. Yun, G. (Ed.) (1989). A Look Beyond the Model Minority Image: Critical Issues in Asian America. New York, NY: Minority Rights Group Inc.[Download]
    591. Yi, S. (2006). Asian American stereotypes in yellow peril and model minority myth. Journal of Jiangsu Teachers University of Technology, 12(1), 25–30.
    592. Yi, H. (2000). From “Yellow Peril” to “Model Minority”: The Educational History of Chinese Americans, 1850–1990. [Dissertation].[Download]
    593. Yi, V., & Museus, S. D. (2015). Model minority myth. In J. Stone, R. M. Dennis, P. Rizova, A. D. Smith, & X. Hou (Eds.), TheWiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from[Download]
    594. Yi, S., Kwon, S. C., Sacks, R., & Trinh-Shevrin, C. (2016). Commentary: Persistence and health-related consequences of the model minority stereotype for Asian Americans. Ethnicity and Disease, 26(1), 133–138. Retrieved from[Download]
    595. Yi, S., Kwon, S. C., Sacks, R., & Trinh-Shevrin, C. (2016). Commentary: Persistence and health-relatedconsequences of the model minority stereotype for Asian Americans. Ethnicity and Disease, 26(1), 133–138. Retrieved from[Download]
    596. Yim, J. Y. (1988). Being an Asian American Male is Really Hard Actually: Cultural Psychology of Asian American Masculinities and Psychological Well-Being. [Thesis].[Download]
    597. Yin, X. (2000, May 7). The Two Sides of America’s ‘Model Minority.’ The Los Angeles Times, M1 & M6.[Download]
    598. Yum, M. R. (2000). Korean American Women in Boston: A New Model Minority. [Thesis].[Download]
    599. Yoshihama, M. (2001). Model Minority Demystified: Emotional Costs of MultipleVictimizations in the Lives of Women of Japanese Descent. In N. G. Choi (Ed.), Psychosocial Aspects of the Asian-American Experience: Diversity Within Diversity (pp. 201-224). New York, NY: Haworth Press.[Download]
    600. Yang, W. (2011, May 16). Paper Tigers: What Happens to all the Asian-American Overachievers When the Test-Taking Ends? New York Magazine, 44(6), 22, 24, 26, 28.[Download]
    601. Ying, Y., Lee, P. A., Tsai, J. L., Hung, Y., Lin, M., & Wan, C. T. (2001). Asian American College Students as Model Minorities: An Examination of Their Overall Competence. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7(1), 59-74.[Download]
    602. Yong-Jin, W. (1994). “Model Minority” Strategy and Asian Americans’ Tactics. Korea Journal, 34(2), 57-66.[Download]
    603. Yook, E. L. (2013). Culture shock for Asians in U.S. academia: Breaking the model minority myth. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.[Download Link1][Download Link2]
    604. Yu, T. (2006). Challenging the Politics of the “Model Minority” Stereotype: A Case for Educational Equality. Equity & Excellence in Education, 39(4), 325-333.[Download]
    605. Yeargin, A. (2016, May 31). Molding a model minority: CCP strategies of social control and liberating the Zhuang from economic struggle. Unpublished Master’s Thesis,
      College of Social Sciences and Public Policy, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida. Retrieved from [Download]
    606. Yeh, C. (2008). Constructing A “Model Minority” Identity: The Miss Chinatown U.S.A. Beauty Pageant. In C. Yeh, Making An American Festival: Chinese New Year in San Francisco’s Chinatown (pp. 56-74). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. [Download]
    607. Yee, A. H. (1992). Asians as Stereotypes and Students: Misperceptions That Persist. Educational Psychology Review, 4(1), 95-132.[Download]
    608. Yee, A. H. (1976). Asian Americans in Educational Research. Educational Researcher, 5(5), 5-8.[Download]
    609. Yin, X. (2001). The Two Sides of America’s “Model Minority.” Chinese American Forum, 16(3), 27-28. [Download]
    610. Yates, L. S. (2009). Model Minorities. In H. T. Greene & S. L. Gabbidon (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Race and Crime (pp. 529-531). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.[Download]
    611. Yokohama, K., & Lee, D. (2005). Managing the Model Minority Myth and Other Misconceptions: The Struggles and Strengths of Asian American Gifted Girls. In S. Kurpius, B. Kerr, & A. Harkins (Eds.), Handbook for Counseling Girls and Women: Ten Years of Gender Equity Research at Arizona State University (pp. 123-156). Mesa, AZ: Nueva Science Press. [Download]
    612. Yoo, H. C., Miller, M. J., & Yip, P. (2015). Validation of the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 21(2), 237–246. [Download]
    613. Yoo, H. C., Burrola, K. S., & Steger, M. F. (2010). A Preliminary Report on a New Measure: Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and Its Psychological Correlates Among Asian American College Students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(1), 114–127.[Download]
    614. Yee, G. A. (2009). She Stood in Tears Amid the Alien Corn: Ruth, the Perpetual Foreigner and Model Minority. In R. C. Bailey (Ed.), They Were All Together in One Place? Toward Minority Biblical Criticism (pp. 119-140). Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature.[Download]
    615. Yamanaka, K., & McClelland, K. (1994). Earning the Model-Minority Image: Diverse Strategies of Economic Adaptation by Asian-American Women. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 17(1), 79–114. [Download]
    616. Yi, J., & Todd, N. R. (2021). Internalized model minority myth among Asian Americans: Links to anti-Black attitudes and opposition to affirmative action. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 1–10. [Download]
    617. Yi, S. (2006). Asian American stereotypes in yellow peril and model minority myth. Journal of Jiangsu Teachers University, 12(1), 25–30
    618. Yun, G. (Ed.) (1989). A Look Beyond the Model Minority Image: Critical Issues in Asian America. New York, NY: Minority Rights Group Inc.[Download]
    619. Yoo, H. C., Miller, M. J., & Yip, P. (2014). Validation of the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 1-10. Retrieved from[Download]
    620. Yoshihama, M. (2001). Model Minority Demystified: Emotional Costs of Multiple Victimizations in the Lives of Women of Japanese Descent. In N. G. Choi (Ed.), Psychosocial Aspects of the Asian-American Experience: Diversity Within Diversity (pp. 201-224). New York, NY: Haworth Press.[Download]
    621. Xie, M., Fowle, J., Ip, P. S., Haskin, M., & Yip, T. (2021). Profiles of ethnic-racial identity, socialization, and model minority experiences: Associations with well-being among Asian American adolescents. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 50, 1173–1188. [Download]
    622. Zia, H. (2000). Gangsters, Gooks, Geishas, and Geeks. In H. Zia (Ed.), Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People. New York, NY: Farrar Strauss and Giroux.[Download]
    623. Zhou, M. (2021). Immigrant selectivity and Asian American education: Dispelling the model minority myth. The 80th Annual Conference of Japanese Educational Research Association. [Download]
    624. Zhou, M., & Bankston, C. L. (2020). The model minority stereotype and the national question: The challenges facing Asian immigrants and their children. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 43(1), 233–253. [Download]
    625. Zhou, M., & Gatewood, J. V. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary Asian America: A Multidisciplinary Reader. New York, NY: New York University Press.[Download]
    626. Zhang, Q. (2010). Asian Americans Beyond the Model Minority Stereotype: The Nerdy and the Left Out. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 3(1), 20-37.[Download]
    627. Zhang, L. (2021). The Chinese Student Protection Act of 1992: Student Immigration and the Transpacific Neoliberal Model Minority. Journal of Asian American Studies, 24(3), 443-470. [Download]
    628. Zhao, Y., & Qiu, W. (2009). How Good Are the Asians? Refuting Four Myths About Asian-American Academic Achievement? Phi Delta Kappan, 90(5), 338-344. [Download]
    629. 曹静怡. (2013, July). From “yellow peril” to “model minority”: The transformation of Chinese image in American mainstream media. Read and Write Periodical, 10(7), 2–4. [Download]
    630. 亚裔美国人公众形象转变研究_陈澄Cheng, C. (2011). A study on the change of Asian American public image-from yellow peril to model minority. Unpublished thesis, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
    631. 早期美国华裔文学作品中的_模范少数族裔_形象_孙冬苗Sun, D. (2012). “Model minority” image in early America Chinese literature works. Lovers of Literature, 4, 92–93. [Download]
    632. 解读_模范少数族裔_理论和多元文化主义思想的内在联系_刘卓Liu, Z., & Yang, D. (2007). Interpreting the intrinsic relationship between model minority and multiculturalism. Journal of Liaoning University, 5, 69–73. [Download]